BEHIND THESE MOUNTAINS VOL. I
Carmen Moore is churning butter while his friend Stewart Hampton ribs him goodnaredly. 1931. Courtesy Stewart and Agnes Hampton collection.
"We had three logging camp positions on Government Creek. At first we just logged. "Loggers never washed their pants," Ruth McKay said.
"They pegged them above their boots., because of the brush. They didn't want to get entangled. They'd get a glaze on their pants. They'd just shine. There was no facilities to keep their clothes clean.
"And they jumped their socks. You know they'd wear them until they had their throats cut, as they called it, when the heel wore out. Then they turned them over, wore a hole, and then turned them over and turned them on their sides, and then finally they just threw them out in the woods. You'd see these old all-wool soxs, completely used. The heel had gone through everywhere.
"They wore cork boots, called coffee "java", and didn't sit around much. When dad was running the logging camp they had their meals at certain times, and on time. The men might have had a coffee pot out there on the stove in the bunkhouse, which was usually centered right in the middle. Their beds were wooden bunks around the walls.
"Mrs. Nellie Skelton cooked. Her daughter was named Nellie, too, her son, John Skelton. When she was 27 she cooked for dad in 1925," Ruth said.
"She baked pies. Lots of them. In those days you had to use a lot of dried fruit. She made an apricot pie with creamed carrots over it to tune down the apricots, and sweeten it up. It made a good pie. We usually had apples. We'd buy boxes of apples.
"My brothers played accordion, mother played piano and guitar and sang. She always had a baby. She never saw us kids play in a basketball game. Instead, she got our clothes ready to go so we could go, but she NEVER saw a basketball game."*1.
"Cliff Weare was never happy unless he was causing somebody some problems. He would just buy the stumpage from the forest service or from where ever he could.
"He probably preferred to buy it from the railroad because they didn't have much of any way to check on him. The forest service always had somebody that would check his sales papers and try to keep him somewhere on his own property.
"But then Cliff wasn't the only one. Everybody figured they were entitled to steal the stumpage. They didn't feel forest service timber belonged to anybody except them.
"The common practice was to stand at your boundary, throw your axe as far as you could, and cut all the timber in that distance."*2.Thom Henderson, who broke a leg in Weare's Bull River logging camp on Oct. 23, wanted damages for his injury. His attorney learned an alarming fact.
"I find that you had not, on October 23, elected to become bound by the provisions of the Workmen's Compensation Act and that you therefore have no defense to any claim which Mr. Henderson may make."Unprotected with Workmen's Compensation insurance, Weare was told he might wish to offer Tom a settlement of $2,133; hospital bill $313, $832 for work missed, figured at $4 a day, 26 days a month for possibly six or more months, plus a minimal amount of $1,000 for pain and suffering.*3.
"You say you do not see all the timber which they claim. That is, 4,500,000 feet of Idaho White Pine. It may be there, and you will not be satisfied until you (get a) cruiser there yourself, and go over it with him, working with him from day to day so that you can get the lay of the ground, and the cost of logging. That's what I always do myself. I don't buy timber and trust a cruiser to tell me just about the cost of logging, because the logging enters into it as much as the amount of timber.
"Therefore, if you expect to buy it, for Heavens' Sake, don't trust somebody else to go and see it, but go yourself. So that you will know what it will cost to log, as well as to know the amount of timber on the ground.
"Note that you are also interested in the timber on Section 18, which belongs to the Forest Service. They will probably put it up for us. In fact, they'll have to, or they are undoubtedly holding it for the Libby people, but it's going to pay to take plenty of time to look into it before we go and make the purchase.
"It looks very good if we can get 8, to 10,000,000' of Idaho White Pine in good sized timber, as Mr. Bell says it is. Would advise you to look into this, and you will have something to look forward to before it is put on the market. Yours very truly."*6.Weare's approach to the Kootenai National Forest received their reply.
"Instead of making an estimate of the timber adjoining the N.P. (NPRR) Sec7/T32N/R31W within the Bobtail Creek watershed, we intend to wait until we are sure of selling the timber before spending any money in getting it ready for market. However, if you are interested in this timber, we can assure you at this time that we will sell all the timber adjoining the N.P. section in the Bobtail Creek drainage."*7.The NPRR, with several million acres of Montana timberlands on their tax rolls, was courting Weare's business, too.
"Wondering if you need any additional data"... "will be glad to give you whatever information is desired, consistent, of course, with regulations," they wrote.*8.In December 1925, Weare paid in full his July 15, 1918 contract with NPRR bring a total of $1,156.23 in eleven payments for Sec.17/T16N/R32W. The Montana Industrial Accident Board, acting on his application, billed him an initial assessment calculated on estimated payroll for one month, November; $62.40.*9. Near the end of 1925, the board notified Weare that his application under Plan Three of the Workmen's Compensation Act
"is still unapproved by reason of your failure to remit the amount of your initial assesment notice."If he doesn't reply by Dec. 31 they'll assume he doesn't want insurance and the application will be closed.*10.
Weare entered into a timber contract with A. C. White and was also authorized
"to buy logs in the same proportion of species ... from other parties on Bull River, turning them in on this contract at the same prices ... The river must be back scaled after the drive in the Spring of 1926, and all logs must be stamped A.C. when banked on the river."The scaler was to be White's man, each of them paying half his wages, but Weare to provide the scaler's food and board.*11.
The forest service approved construction of a log landing, and skidway along the Connelly Slough on Bull River, for a $5 'use-permit' *12 and sold Weare fifty thousand feet of dead white pine at $2 a thousand on Sections 14 and 11, T28N/R33W.*13.
Weare obtained a list of delinquent taxes from Pacific County, South Bend, Washington, that would be foreclosed on and sold the fall of 1925.*14. Whether he planned to buy property there for back taxes remains unknown.
"When I was about fifteen or sixteen I got a permit to work as a railroad section hand on the NPRR under foreman, Mr. Knutson, putting in ties," Carmen Moore said. "We worked west toward Heron. Stewart Hampton worked for Charlie Knutson up on the other end.
"Most of the ballast on the railroad that went from Noxon east was from the cinders that had been dumped along the track from the big engines. They put an awful lot of that around the ties. It was awful easy to shovel and tamp the ties. Where down the other way it was all gravel and rock. I often wished I could work on the other end and Stewart would kid me about it and say 'we got the real stuff up here to tamp in'.
"It didn't make any difference, because we were young and the wages weren't very much. We had to work just as hard. Wages were 35 cents an hour. $2.80 a day. Gasoline was 33 cents a gallon at Larson's store. For an hour's work I could buy a gallon of gas. It cost around $6 for a fairly good pair of shoes, two days wages."*15.Everett Jenkins was forest service packer, and with a string of mules transported equipment and food up to lookouts on the peaks all around Noxon from 1926 to 1930.*16.
Clate Bauer, logging on Green Mountain, where Eddy Gore lived northeast of Noxon, hired young Buster Weare.*19. George Jamison was one of several teamsters, and he worked with his four-horse team that weighed a ton or more, hauling for Weare up on the Bull River.*20.
Although men found fairly steady work, wages and expenses were pushing pretty hard in the middle of winter. Timber men wouldn't receive cash until all the winter harvest was received at the mills, sorted and tallied up.
White complains to Weare,
"We just have your letter asking that we make another deposit for you, and we will do this some time next week. It is pretty hard to keep up with all of these payments right now, but assure you we will do everything possibly ... "We understand ... you want us to send the Metropolitan Cedar Company $730 by January 20th. We will do this."*21.Harvey Kirschbaum gets into a wrangle with Cliff and appeals to D. M. Bell, Plains, getting little sympathy for his whining.
"We have no contract with Mr. Weare whereby he can make any special charge for timber, but we don't feel that Mr. Weare in driving the River must drive all the timber, therefore its up to Mr. Weare to make a reasonable charge for this, and as I understand you are using Mr. Weare's landing which would be an additional charge.
"We want your White Pine and wish you would compromise with Mr. Weare. Driving them couldn't be done for $4 a thousand. We don't want standing dry White Pine at all."*22.Seven million feet of logs went down the Clark's Fork River in the annual spring log drive in 1926.*23.
"Boy that used to be the big event of the year. When the drive was coming you went down there because you knew there was going to be these pineapple fritters.
"Brockway would make pineapple fritters. He'd order pineapple from Sandpoint ... he cooked them in a wash boiler, he had a wash boiler he cooked these fritters in. "Us kids would go down there and eat fritters until we were simply loaded. We'd make ourselves sick with fritters.
"They parked just overnight at Noxon. The camp would be in there and then they'd go on west because they'd been fighting from the Furlong Rapids to the Heron Rapids.*24. Albert Nolan, the drive master, took the last drive through.*25.Weare's check stubs for payment to log drivers, April 1926 included, J. Daly, 9 day drive ($42); F. Kincade, 2 day ($12); R. Boher, 6 day ($36); J. Canfield, 2 day ($12); Paul Hines, (April 30, 1926) $13.20; A. Berray, $18.00 (May 8, 1923 drive); Francis Kincade, $36; Ray Higgins, $24; Arthur Chastens, $30; Dan Coan, 14 days ($84.)
The dispute began when Weare accepted some horses in 1924. Two head of horses, Pal and Lee and harness, were shipped
"which Mr. May has agreed to take care of and sell and remit to us on the basis of $250 for the team." Also, another horse, Coon, who has a bad hoof, May was "to sell if possible and to take care of."May, a fine teamster, was John McKay's father-in-law. Weare employed both of them from time to time.
In 1926 the Mann Lumber Company attorney wanted Weare to settle for the team and harness and to give "an accounting as to the horse, Coon."*27.
Weare turned to his attorney, Wade Parks, and left the matter unsettled for nearly a year. In February 1927 Parks advised Weare about,
"three certain horses," that an attorney by the name of Hyde wants the money collected for the 'three horses they sent along to be sold by that man, Mays ... they sure got their guts to ask you to pay ... Times must be hard for Hyde and he wants to get something a going. If it had not been for that genenral letter which you gave that agent of yours, they would never have hooked you for those other horses last year ..."Parks promised to look over all his correspondence before giving an opinion
"as to whether they can possibly hook you. Maybe you had better slip up to Plains soon, - or if you are going to be in Noxon some week-end day I could come down and see you."*28.The previous year John McKay and Weare had gotten into selling huckleberries, advertising in the Butte Miner newspaper: $1.10 a gallon delivered express by rail, shipped in 4 gallon box.*29.
Weare designed a efficient huckleberry picking tool, and a simple but effective method to clean berries by the gallons. Patenting fees have kept him from making patent on them yet.
1926 was a fairly good year for berries, and Weare shipped 134 boxes totaling 4,530 lbs fresh picked and cleaned huckleberries to 37 customers. Individual shipments ranged from 30 lbs each to 565 lbs bought by Inland Products, Spokane, Washington who took a total of 2292 lbs in one month.
Montana buyers were the mainstay of individual orders. Helena, Butte, Bozeman, Livingston, Missoula, Whitehall, and Sapington received boxes of succulent berries. The 30 lbs boxes were purchased, ready-made from Couer d'Alene Box and Manufacturing company.*30.
Throughout 1926 political activity has occupied not a little energy in the valley. Weare, always intensely interested in the politics of Sanders County, hears in October from his lawyer, Wade Parks,
"Just a line to advise you its too late to place any independent ticket on the ballot. ... send me the petition at your earliest ... advise me as to how general you believe the support would be for me as against Alvord; judging from what you heard and [sic - when] you circulated the petition. Question of an Independent Ticket is out of the question. But Montana statute provides that 'we can use stickers with the name printed thereon which sticker can be PASTED OVER the name of any other candidate on the ballot and vote for the name on the sticker."Parks is holding the check from Everett Jenkins and Weare in case they decide not to make any campaign.
"Send the petition so I can know who are willing to support me if I run."*31.All the time Weare was logging and huckleberrying he also was building up the soil on his ranch, as were all the little gypo loggers. Gypsum was the fertilizer in use. The County Extension Office said,
"It has been indicated by the questionnaire that I sent out that there will be orders enough for a carload of gypsum this fall, to be shipped to Trout Creek."*32.Weare still owed $2 a sack on 2 sacks spuds bought in January from John Derr, Clark Fork, Idaho when he bought SE1/4 Sec. 5/Twn55N/Rng3 in Idaho,
"for $233.77, highest bid sale advertised in Pen d'Oreille Review, published in Bonner County, Idaho."*33.A tremendous amount of pole timber was on the land Weare dickered for. A market needed to be located. June 21, 1926, Weare used the classified telephone directory of Boston that he'd ordered from the Boston Chamber of Commerce, and looked up the addresses for a list of light, heat and power companies who use poles.
Cash flow continues to plague the timber industry.
"Received your letter this morning asking us to give the Bank $1,000 that you may be able to take care of your checks," White wrote Weare. "We can do that right around the 15th. We are mighty short just now on account of having to pay out so much for the 4th of July. In fact, we have checked out over $15,000 to our Camp and Millhands, and it meant a big hole in our bank account."*34.This cash problem increased right along. During September, October and November the NPRR is hounding Weare for payments. If he hasn't paid by November 20th, they'll declare the contract null and void. Weare finally convinces White the situation is desperate. In November White's treasurer advises him
"we have today deposited in the First National Bank, to your credit, $1,651.57, and will put in enough more to-morrow to make up the $2,000. Hence, you can send off your check to the Northern Pacific Railway Company."*35.Shortly before Christmas another problem, similar to scheduling two freight trains on the same railroad track at the same moment, cropped up. White's lumber company told Weare they, too, will be using Bull River hoping
"that we will not mutually interfere with the Drive on Bull River in the Spring, as it seems necessary for us to buy some logs in that territory.
"We understand from Mr. Burrill that your Poles could have been drive down this Fall, owing to the extraordinary rise in Bull River. Possibly there will be enough water next spring to clear both drives. We hope this will be true."*36.
"We had a little sawmill," Ruth McKay said. "About 1927, we established a steam mill, a much larger mill, right at the bottom of the Government Creek bench. Just where it dips down and starts to flatten out.
"Dad built most of his sawmill. Bought a steam driven engine. It would saw slabs about eight foot (sic) long. We did all right in that period, but Henry Larson had helped finance our milling operations. He was the store owner.*37.A. C. White, personally, writes a letter to Weare,
"Our man, Albert Howlin, who looks after the driving of logs, advises he will commence driving about the 20th of April.... you must have the logs put in before the drive reaches you. Otherwise, we will charge you for any expense which we are put to for rolling the logs in."Andy Doyle will be White's man driving the logs from the Bull River region to Dover.
"To take advantage of the right state of water, please have your logs rolled in at the right time."*38.Before the transactions were completed, Weare was into a 'fuss' again. This time it was with Doyle. In June, White Lumber Company can only put $250 in the bank for Weare and advises they have a charge of $30 against him
"from Andy Doyle, one day, four men, taking logs to river." Please ok it.*39.Weare refused to okay Doyle's wages. White paid $61.54, balance due on Weare's account, saying there was a misunderstanding over who was to pay Andy Doyle. White suggests Weare settle with Doyle since White had already paid Doyle.*40.
When the disagreement had built up a good head of steam, White backed water,
"What is the reason we can't get together and settle up the tag ends of your logging account? Come down the 18th. We want to do the right thing and know you do, too. There is no use of any lawyers mixing in." Signed by treasurer, E. R. McCory.*41.The final disposition showed the error was in logs scaled back in 1924-25, by H. A. Goddard. Doyle's statements:
1924 - $1,924.60
1925 - $2,065.30
1926 - $2,576.90
1927 - $1,904.20.
"which you were to care for and dispose of on the basis of $250 for the team." Or they'd "settle the matter in court."*43.Logging provided work mostly during the winter and spring months. Lumberjacks and local ranchers were often hard pressed to find income during the slack summer months. Lumberjacks generally moved along, working where they could.
"I have worked all over this country and finally wound up in the mill here," Ronald Grant wrote from Wauna, Oregon. "I have managed to stay here for a month and I think I will stay a while longer. I like the country down here even tho it rains every other day." Grant asks if Weare is going to do any logging during the winter.*44.Berry picking was an alternative to doing forest service trail work. A. Holstein sends a proposition to Weare to,
"hit the huckleberry game for every cent there is in it this year."Holstein's scheme is to maybe fix up a road up Dry Creek, and throw up a log cabin or two on the mountain.
"There are lots of good looking laborers here at all times and if there is a bumper crop of berries in prospect I would like to help connect the laborers with the berries and the berries with the market until we sell that whole mountain.
"We can give the laborers the best paying job they ever had and the merchants the best fruit they ever handled and still have something left for our trouble. What do you say?"*45.I don't know whether Weare teamed up with Holstein. But he did ship berries. Orders began filling his mailbox again in August.
"Time permitting, we will be glad to look over this situation with you sometime in the near future ... suggest you show the layout to Mr. Johnston who can advise us if the line you suggest is practical from a through standpoint from Noxon to the State line."*46.Perhaps it was just progress catching up, but whatever Weare or Bob Saint might have thought to the contrary, NPRR began keeping very careful accounts of their assets, possibly more so even than the forest service did.
J. H. Cook, NPRR Eastern Land Agent notified Weare he was in arrears on his land contract.*47. And NPRR Chief Timber Inspector, Frank Tomkins, advised him,
"Please send me your check or Money Order ... for $271.51 to settle the timber trespass on W1/2 Sec.9/T28N/R33W. In cases of this kind we are required by the St. Paul office to obtain settlement promptly or turn the matter over to our attorneys."*48.
"We noted in Mr. Vinal's letter of Sept 2, 1927, to the Chief Timber Inspector, that you ... had intended to purchase this land and that you might possibly do so."NPRR wants $168.52 now for the timber, or buy the land, or they'll sue.*49.
Weare turned the matter over to his attorney, with directives that White should take care of his money problems. Wade Parks advises him that A. C. White Lumber Co has engaged Weare's old foe, A. S. Ainsworth, as their attorney.
"Of course this really is an insult it seems to me ... they KNOW that Ainsworth does not have the data on which to figure out our claims. I consider that it is an old dodge to defer the matter and do not even expect any answer from Ainsworth ...
"NPRR claims a trespass by you to the amount of $250 odd dollars, which ... they'll charge to you in any final settlement. They accede to the idea that you are entitled to interest 'on the amount which was over due' … We are not ready for the next move as I do not expect any further word from them or their attorney if we wait one or six months.*50.Weare points out to the timber inspector that NPRR had never settled an account owing to him, regarding the railroad spur on his land. Almost every dispute that Weare gets involved in becomes complicated by some circumstance or other. This time is no exception. Frank Tompkins acknowledged Weare's claim,
"... what you say in regard to N.P.Ry. Company owing you $260, which you would be willing to turn over to this Department, and to make up the balance of $11.51 ... doesn't make any difference to me ... but get some action on it as soon as possible ...
"You must understand that you had no right to cut this timber without our permission, and that this Department is doing more than is required by regarding the case as an innocent trespass and offering to settle with you on that basis ... make payment as you suggest or through the A. C. White Company, which firm, I understand, owes you for timber."*51.Answering Weare's request for an update of the railroad spur bill, NPRR says, about the "spur built in 1913" that their department has no record of it. And referred matter to general supt.*52.
Next, they ask Weare to sign an agreement allowing A. C. White to give NPRR $186.64 for the timber they claim he cut, charged to his account with White, if White owes Weare that amount and will pay it to the NPRR.*53.
It becomes more complex.
A. C. White Lumber Company admits they owe Weare more than enough to cover the NPRR claim, but Weare claims the NPRR owes him for purchasing ties, which they didn't pay for. A railroad employee, Mr. Weisenburger, claimed the records didn't show it.
The matter was further confused by
a "new state timber law" under which "the state has a claim against the Railway Company for $18.12 for the estimated cost of removing the underbrush and tree tops left from the timber that you cut upon the railway land ..." So NPRR thinks Weare should not only pay $168.52 actual appraised price, but also the $18.12.*54.NPRR accepts Weare's "$100 check to be applied on the amount you owe" on the timber trespass, noting he expects to pay the balance as soon as possible.*55.
As 1927 ends, Parks is trying to settle the conflict over what Weare claims NPRR owes him for the railroad spur.
"Did you ever have any kind of a contract or agreement in WRITING wherein they agreed to reimburse you for the cost of the spur? Who was it with, who signed it, what officials gave it to you?"Paarks needs to know what valuation the NPRR places on the Spur, and Weare lost his papers in a house fire.*56.
Weare inquired of Weyerhaeuser Forest Products, Bonners Ferry Lumber Co, about lands for sale near Bull Lake. $85,000 cash was their asking price for about 1,529 acres.*57.
Harvested by the lumberjacks Weare has in logging camps, great decks of poles accumulated in the forests, while Weare looked for suitable markets. Page and Hill Co., Spokane, was pleased to hear of this supply. Although its been a long time since they'd heard from Weare they assured him they were glad to hear he had about 3,000 Cedar Poles on hand ready for shipment. They wanted very much
"to line up a deal with you for these poles. Please send the number of poles of each size and length."*58.While Weare waited for replies he began having his poles trucked to "Weare's Spur" on the NPRR tracks near Noxon. Clate Bauer hauled and also Les Kensler is hauling poles to Weare.*59.
Comstock Cedar and Lumber Co. of Rhinelander, Wisconsin wrote,
"We should be very glad indeed to have you give us a list of the poles" available and the best price. "We have an idea that we could do quite a little business with you, if your prices are favorable."*60. After receiving the prices they reply, "The prices you list are attractive. In fact, we think you could get more than this out of your poles if you were willing to accept orders for direct shipment ... if you undertake to deliver them, as other shippers do, you would make considerable on the underweight ... this is the only real money-making "racket." "Taking price, inspection and underweight, we would think you should net around 25% or 30% more for your poles in this way."They urge Weare to do this instead of selling to a jobber.
"We should be glad to have you consider whether you would care to try out a few orders. "… but at this season orders are not so plentiful ... When buying begins again on a larger scale, we ought to be able to send you some attractive business."*61.Weare had also contacted the Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph Co., who reply they buy through a central supply point, but would be interested in having prices on 20, 25, 30 and 35 foot poles of various classes from 'E' to 'B' for each length of pole.*62. The Helena Ga and Electric Co., Helena, also provided the prices they pay, on carload lots, of 7"-35' poles ($5) and 7"-40' poles ($6.50) plus $1.50 and $1.80 respectively for delivery.*63.
Weare shipped a car loaded 'to visible capacity' of cedar poles, from Weare's Spur to Helena Light and Railway Company, and another carload on October 23.*64.
Hard work and a busy mind kept Weare in tip top condition, and he never lacked for innovative ideas. He has been in touch with Sheet Steel Trade Extension Committee, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania asking about costs of manufacturing of a steel socket for telephone poles that Weare designed.*65.
The Montana Power Company ordered a carload of 8"-40' cedar poles (76 poles) shipped to their warehouse, Butte, MT. $6.50 each, f.o.b. Noxon. (Total, $494.00).*66. Page and Hill Co. wrote in November,
"If you have not already contracted or sold your poles to someone else" they were in the market for 40-foot, 45-foot and 50-foot long poles.*67.Farmers State Bank, Opheim, Montana wrote, also, asking for a quote on cedar fence posts, all sizes, the number in a carload, and freight prices from Noxon to Opheim.*68.
"By 1928 I was in high school. My father, who always liked horses, had given up trying to cut enough cord wood to make a living on Blue Creek. We'd moved to Sandpoint again and he was driving a horse, pulling track cars in the Humbird Lumber mill and planer yards in Dover, a sawmill town on the west side of Pend Oreille Lake.
"My first lumber mill experience began when I was hired for a summer job at A. C. White Lumber Company at their Dover, Idaho plant. I worked first as a carpenter helper, tarring roofs of company buildings. I graduated to shoveling sawdust in the sawmill-building basement. From there I could look up at the steam engine that moved the entire mill machinery.
"There was a spinning device with three large metal balls rotating around a vertical spindle shaft, connected to the top of the engine. The foreman told me those were the governer-balls that control engine speed. The balls moved slowly but the big ten-foot diameter belt wheel over my head moved much faster. The 24 inch wide leather drive belt, wrapped over halfway around the pulley, was moving at high speed. When I held my wooden shovel handle vertically up to within three inches of the moving leather belt, there appeared blue-green static flames jumping from handle end to belt. I felt no electric shock from it.
"Later the mill boss moved me to the millpond to feed logs into the mill. With a ten-foot pike-pole with a steel spike in the end and a side hook, for hooking logs, I was expected to feed logs to a moving chain. Hooks on the chain dragged dripping logs up a sloping trough, one by one, into the mill. At the top of the slope, where the logs leveled off the chain, a man measured each log with a yardstick with a hook on it. The measure figure was noted on his clipboard to total the board feet of logs entering the mill, and figure the mill production each day.
"When the logs near me in the pond were all sent up to the mill, another man, the boom tender, pulled another catch of logs from the river rafts. The floating logs were easy to move in any direction with our pike-poles.
"Slimy 16 foot logs, ranging between eight to thirty inches in diameter, rolled off the chain from the pond, then were rolled sideways to a deck. From the far side of the deck, log after log was moved by a bar, called a 'nigger', that prodded them sideways onto a platform on rollers called 'the carriage'. Immediately the log was grasped by sharp steel fingers, slammed into its bark by a man using levers. The man rode on a seat behind the levers as the carriage forced the log end-wise against the whirling saw teeth.
"Opposite the middle of the carriage alley, and behind the saw from the man on the carriage, sat the 'sawyer'. He was the one who moved the endwise travel of the log carriage with a lever controlling the steam valve and piston pushing the carriage.
"The sawyer was the most important man in the mill. He signaled with his fingers to the carriage man to set the log toward the saw, one, two, or more inches, for the plank sliced off the log at each pass. "After one log was all cut, the sawyer ran the carriage to the far end of the alley opposite the log deck for the 'nigger' to push a new log on the carriage.
"There was constant noise in this sawing. The steam piston was whooshing and puffing. The saw was a silver steel band with teeth on both edges moving vertically. It screamed and moaned as the wood pushed against it, was quiet a moment as the log passed beyond it, then screeched again as the log came by for another cut.
"Starting with a new log, the first pass through the saw ripped off a slab with rounded bark one side and new wood on the other. The next pass ripped off a plank with bark on both edges. These fell off the saw onto moving rollers that quickly shot them endwise to a table where a man grabbed them to start them through edger saws that ripped off the edge bark strips. The edger man wore heavy leather mitts and a thick leather apron, feeding the edger saws set for 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12-inch planks. On the roller table beyond the edgers a man bent, picking edgings.
"The edgings, strips with bark, he threw off the open sides of the table. Below him a side-wise moving set of chains pushed the edgings to saws cutting four-foot lengths.
"Freshly sawn end-moving planks drop onto side-moving chains. Above the chains, a man in a cage with a row of levers, released the planks passing under him. As he pulled, circle saws popped up to cut the 16 foot lengths into shorter pieces. This "trimmer man" cut out knots and other bad places. The boards continue on moving chains to a long shed outside the mill. "The long table in the "green chain" shed has rows of track cars set endwise at right angles to the table. There, men with leather gloves and aprons, snatch the planks off the moving chains onto cars, sorting them according to dimension as they work. Two by fours, one by eights, etc., are put in separate cars. Full carloads are pulled away by a draft horse to acres of storage yard where lumber pilers (who worked for gypo wages) stack the planks, spaced by narrow wood strips placed between layers, for air drying the lumber. Most gypos chewed snuff tobacco since it was too risky to smoke in the lumberyard. Some of the green lumber was hauled into a steam-heated enclosed building called a 'dry kiln'.
"At the planer mill noise claims you entirely. Planks brought by horse car from dry yard or kiln were being fed endwise into machines with whirling planer knives. Wood chips were sucked away by fans. The air was saturated with the smell of pine resin. Planed lumber was loaded on standard railway cars on the switch track by the planning mill.
"A small warming shed, on the floating walkways by the river log boom, was the 'boom tenders shack'. On cold nights the slip tender and the boom tender took turns keeping warm while the other was moving logs.
"Bunk houses in the woods were filled with fleas and lice in the blankets. The cookhouse was run by the Bull Cook and his flunkies. Mills had water ponds, teepee burners, horses, big steam engines."*69.Montana had one bank for every 2,700 population in 1928; average deposits per bank at the close of business in 1928 were $918,186. In 1927 the population/bank was 1,296 with average deposits $620,987; Deposits up from previous year by $14,000,000; increased $35,000,000 since 1926, and $71,000,000 above 1925.
"The number of banks declined slighty... due to consolidation," down from 207 to 202 banks.*70.A. C. White Lumber Company wrote to Weare,
"That you may have a little Christmas money from this firm, we are enclosing a check for $250. It is pretty hard to dig up the money yet, but it should be easier after the first of the year."The company asks that Weare send them a detailed statement.
" … this interest item seems to be a pretty complicated affair ... list all the items that you have. Do not leave anything out, so that we can get to an agreement."*71.Weare's Model 1895 Winchester, with which he supplied venison for his family and many others, needs a new barrel. The rifle will have to be shipped to Winchester Repeating Arms Co. factory in New Haven, CT for installation.*72.
- Ruth McKay Tauscher, tape-recorded oral history July 9, 1986.
- H. R. Bob Saint, tape-recorded oral history, November 18, 1983; and various others.
- Howard Toole, attorney, Missoula, MT January 7, 1925.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, May 17, 1926.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, October 15, 1925.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, November 9, 1925.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, November 16, 1925.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, November 21, 1925.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, November 30, 1925.
- Montana Industrial Accident Board, letter December 21, 1925.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, December 21, 1925.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, December 14, 1925.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, December 21, 1925.
- South Bend, WA, August 8, 1925.
- Carmen Moore, tape recorded oral history.
- Howard Jenkins, letter, October 15, 1983.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, January 22, 1926.
- Cabinet National Forest, Noxon District.
- Clayton Bauer, tape recorded oral history November 1979. Clifford A. "Buster" Weare worked for him 1926-27.
- Loren "Lanky" Jamison, tape recorded oral history December 26, 1986.
- A. C. White Lumber Company, January 7, 1926.
- D. M. Bell, Plains, MT to Harvey Kirschbaum, letter January 23, 1926.
- Noxon High School BUZZER 1926.
- H. R. Bob Saint, tape recorded oral history, November 18, 1983.
- Nolan's drive was taken out 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, April 20, 1926.
- W. L. Hyde, attorney, letter September 20, 1926.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, February 26, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, September 3, 1925.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, August 1926.
- Wade R. Parks, Plains, MT letter October 4, 1926.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, Octoer 16, 1926.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, November 15, 1926.
- A. C. White Lumber Company, letter July 7, 1926.
- A. C. White Lumber Company, letter November 17, 1926.
- A. C. White Lumber Company, treasurer, December 17, 1926.
- Ruth Tauscher McKay, tape recorded oral history July 9, 1986.
- A. C. White, letter April 2, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, June 18, 1927.
- A. C. White, letter August 24, 1927.
- A. C. White, letter October 8, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, May 3, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, August 17, 1927.
- Ronald Grant to C. R. Weare, letter September 8, 1927.
- A. Holstein, letter to C. R. Weare July 27, 1927.
- U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Public Roads, District 1, Missoula, MT, letter August 27, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, September 10, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, September 12, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, September 19, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, September 20, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, September 30, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, October 11, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, October 12, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, October 12, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, October 13, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, December 28, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, October 23, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, August 23, 1927.
- Harry Tallmade, letter to Weare October 6, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, September 13, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, September 30, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, October 12, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, September 29, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, October 17, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, October 22, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, November 8, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, November 25, 1927.
- Austin Clayton, letter January 21, 1987.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, December 5, 1927.
- Sanders County Independent Ledger, May 29, 1929.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, December 17, 1927.
- Clifford R. Weare papers, December 28, 1927.