Tuesday, March 29, 2011

Vol. 3 Name Index


 
Abley, Alice

Adams, Bernice Winter

Adams, George

Adams, James L.

Adams, W. C. (Judge)

Adams, Thelma Harvey

Ainsworth, A. S.

Ainsworth, (son of A. S.)

Alexanderson, Dr.

Allan, Annie

Allan, Fred P.

Allan, Lucy Jenkins

Alvord, A. A.

Anderson Dr.

Anderson, Ivan V. "Andy"

Andrews (girls)

Arbuckle, Roscoe "Fatty"

Argo, Pearl

Arms, Dan

Atkinson, Miss

Attleberry,

Aue, Sam

Baird, Homer

Baker, Andrew

Baker, Bill

Baker, Clyde E. (sheriff)

Baker, George

Baker, Georgia

Baker, Harry Lee

Baker, Mrs.

Baldwin, Ruby Fulks

Baligrodzki, B. M.

Bandelin, O. J.

Bannec, Mr. & Mrs.

Bannister, Alice

Bartholomew, Ethel

Bartholomew, Ira B. "Strawberry"

Bartow, Mr.

Bateman, R. E.

Bauer, Aleatha

Bartlett, F. B.

Bascom & Greenough

Bascomb, Almon W.

Bauer, Aleatha

Baker, E. D.

Baker, E. O.

Baker, George

Baker, Jonathan

Baker, Nola

Baker, Mrs.

Baker, Roy

Baldwin, C. A.

Baldwin, C. L.

Baldwin, Mrs. C. L.

Bauer, Alzire

Bauer, Charles

Bauer, Clayton "Clate"

Bauer, Granville "Skinny"

Bauer, Irene

Bauer, James "Jim"

Bauer, Mrs. Stella Jane

Bauer, Velma Webster

Baxter, Lena

Beal, John "Johnny"

Beal, Mrs. H. J.

Beal, Tom

Beason, Jesse O.

Beason, Mary Doyle

Beckman, W. H.

Bedard,

Bedard, (son)

Beebe,, J.Randal "Buck"

Behmerwohld, Harry

Behmerwohld, Honas

Bell, D. M.

Bell, Mr.

Bennion, Fred

Berray, "Algie"

Berray, Betty Jo

Berray, Caspar "Cap

Berray, Evelyn VanCleve

Berray, Frank

Berray, Helen

Berray, James C."Jim"

Berray, Julia Higgins

Berray, Kay

Bib, Kay

Biber, Carl

Billmeyer, Dr. D. H.

Black, Frank H.

Black, Irving

Black, James A.

Black, Saml. I.

Black, Susan H.

Boher, R.

Bowen, Mr.

Boyd, L. M. "Mel"

Braden, Isabel

Brady,

Briggs, C. F.

Britton, Wally

Bixen, Audrey Moore

Brock, Ida

Brock, Melvin

Brock, Nels

Brock, Orville

Brock, Soren

Brockway,

Brockway, "Old"

Broderson, Theodore

Brooks, Joe

Brothers, Leonard

Brothers, Ross

Brotherston, Earnest

Brown, F. C. (see Fred E.)

Brown, Fred E.

Brown, Lillian Drury

Brown, Madelaine

Buckman, Daisy

Buck, Elizabeth

Buck, George H.

Buel, Deputy Sheriff

Bunn, Bryant B.

Burdette, Bill

Burdette, George William

Burdett, Mrs. George William

Burke & McBride

Burns, Tommy

Burrill, G. S

Burton, John

Bushey, Hubert S.

Buxton, George

Callahan, Ed

Calveti,

Canfield, J.

Carlise, A.

Carlise, J. A

Carmichael, Grace (see Nelson)

Carmichael, Zenus

Carner, Marion (see McKee)

Carner, R. A. "Happy"

Carney & Co.

Cavanah, Judge

Caza, Zin

Chalmers, Rhoda Corn

Chapin E.

Chastens, Aarthur

Cheney, L. L. "Lon"

Christianson, (see LeGault)

Clark, A. C.

Clark, Jack

Claxton, Blanche Gordon

Clayton, Austin

Clayton, Earl

Clayton, Elsie

Clifton, Applegate & Toole

Cluzen, Bobby

Cluzen, Margaret Larson

Coan, Dan

Cole, Richard J.

Collins,

Colvin, "Coley" (See J. C.)

Colvin, James

Conn, H

Connelley, Frank

Connelly, F. M (See Connelley)

Conner, Dan

Conners, Mike

Conroy, L. W.

Cook, J. H.

Coombs,

Copeland, Annie Christina (See Pringle)

Coppery, Fred

Copley, Al

Coppedge, Fritz

Corn, Bonnie

Corn, Jack

Corn, Rhoda

Cotton, Lillian "Lilly" Jenkins

Cotton, Marion

Cox, A. Ben

Cox, Cliff

Cox, Lawrence "Larry"

Cox, Margaret

Cox, Mary

Cox, Thelma M.

Coyer, John

Craig, Clayton

Craig, Margaret

Cramer, A. J.

Cramer, Albert

Cramer, Robert

Crawford, Carl H. Crighton, James

Chrighton, Sheila (see Gardner)

Crit, Bob

Crozier, Roy

Culbert, Daisy

Culbert, W. W.

Collogan, Mr.

Cummings, Edna Evans

Cummings, Kenney

Curtis, H.

Dahlberg, Helen

Dahlstrom, Victor

Daly, J

Daly, John

Dameron, Stella Gordon

Daniels, Dick

Daniels, Elmer

Daniels, Howard

Daniels, Laura

Daniels, Mrs. Ida

Darling, W. A.

Daugharty, Gordon "Bud"

Davidson, W. R

Davies, Alex "Scottie"

Davis, H. L.

Davis, Lillian

Delavan, D. C.

DeLong, Dan, Sr.

DeLong, Daniel

DeLong, Louise (see Taylor)

Denny, Mr.

Deno, Bud

Derr, A. M.

Dettwiler, Art "Shorty"

Dettwiler, Emil

Dettwiler, Gene

Dettwiler, Marvin

Dettwiler, Ruth (see McQuaide)

Devan, W. T.

Dewart, J. F.

Dills, Reverend

Dingman, Oscar

Diver, F. I. (see Divers)

Divers, F. I.

Divers, Mrs. F. I.

Dixon, Frank

Dixon, Joseph M.

Dobravec, Agnes

Dobravec, Frank

Dobravec, Joseph "Joe"

Dobravec, Leon

Dobravec, Rose

Dodge, Bessie

Dodge, Ellen

Dodge, Isobel

Dodge, Maurice

Dodge, Wagner

Dodge, Wayland

Dolan, John

Donahue, Bob

Donovan, John F.

Dougherty, C. J.

Douglas, A. R.

Doyle, Andy

Drake, Howard

Dryer, bachelor

Dryer, son

Duffy, George "Red"

Duffy, Jim "Jimmy"

Duffy, Johnny

Duffy, Katie

Duffy, Patrick

Duffy, Patrick "Pat"

Duffy, Terry

Dunn, Alexander L.

Dymer, Miss

Easter, Bernice

Easter, Elmer

Easter, Mary (see Younker)

Easter, Mrs.

Eastland, Reverend

Ekstedt, Clarence

Ekstedt, Viola Vorderbrueggen

Elison, Mary

Ellinwood, Alice "Sally"

Ellinwood, Gladys

Ellinwood, Hazel

Ellinwood, Howard

Ellinwood, Irene

Ellinwood, Lloyd

Ellis, Almeda "grandma"

Ellis, Bill

Ellis, Charles "Billy"

Ellis, Edna

Ellis, Nettie

Elphick, John

Elphick, Mabel Jane

Engle, Alma

Engle, Earl

Engle, Carrie "Grandma"

Engle, Isaac

Engle, Katie

English, Dr.

Eplin, Neil

Erickson, John

Esler, Alta Syth

Etenger, H.Ettinger, Gladys

Evans, Edna (see Cummings)

Evans, John. M.

Evans, Millie

Evans, Mrs. David

Evans, Thomas

Fairchild, Lillian

Fairweather, Hallie

Fanslow, Mr.

Fassett, C. M.

Fernandez, Michael

Fewkes, Del

Fillerup, S. A.

Finnelly, Grace Gordon

Finnelly, John T. "Jack"

Finnigan, Bill "Billy"

Finnigan, James H.

Finnigan, Lottie (see Moore & Hazelroth)

Finnigan, William "Bill"

Fishe, Paul

Fisher, Cass

Fitting, Mr.

Fitzgerald, Ed, Jr.

Fitzwater, I. A.

Fleeming, Mrs.

Fleming, Curtis

Felming, Dean

Fleming, Ralph

Flolo, Beatrice

Flolo, Minnie

Flolo, Mr.

Flolo, Ola

Foland, Harriet Louise (see Raynor)

Foley, "Dad"

Foote, Clarence

Fox, Clinton

Franck, L. S.

Freeman, James "Jim"

French, Dorothy

Fulks, Alice "Grandma"

Fulks, John "Grandpa"

Fulks, Charles

Fulks, Ethel (see Greer & Bartholomew)

Fulks, Golda (see Hollar)

Fulks, Julia (see Jude LeGault)

Fulks, William

Gage, Ray

Gamble, Wallace "Wally"

Gandy, Lloyd E.

Gardner, George

Garner, Sheila (see Crighton)

Garrett, Inzez R.

Gaven, Emil

Geist,

Geske, Bill

Getty, Agnes

Getty, Grandma

Gittings, Mr.

Glasgow, R. L. Rev.

Goddard, H. A.

Gordon, Blanche (see Claxton)

Gordon, Clyde Lester

Gordon, Grace (see Finnelly)

Gordon, Granville "Granny"

Gordon, Lester

Gordon, Pauline Reithmiller

Gordon, Stella (see Dameron)

Gore, Carrie

Gore, Cleo

Gore, Ed "Eddy"

Gottard,

Graham, Olver

Grant, Conrad "Con"

Grant, Ronald

Granville,

Greeden, John

Green, Bryce

Green, Gerld "Gene"

Green, Leda Jenkins

Green, Lyle

Green, Patrick E.

Green, Phil

Greenough, C. W.

Greenwood, Alma Engle

Greer, Bill

Greer, Charlie

Greer, Chester "Chess"

Greer, Dan

Greer, Eldon

Greer, Ethel Fulks (Bartholomew)

Greer, George

Greer, Goldie

Greer, Homer

Greer, Mary (see Miller)

Greer, Wm. "Will"

Grofv, J. W.

Gross, George

Hagel, Frank

Hagerty, John

Hagerty, Mary Ellen "Mammie"

Hale, Mr.

Hall, Mr.

Hall, Mrs.

Halves, Red (see Haves)

Hammons,

Hampton, Agnes Jenkins

Hampton, Arthur "Art"

Hampton, Dorrien

Hampton, Edward

Hampton, Florence "Fanny"

Hampton, George

Hampton, Kate

Hampton, Marjorie

Hampton, Stewart

Harder, George

Harker, Harry

Harker, J. H.

Harker, Jay

Harker, John

Harker, Mr.

Harker, Mrs.

Harris, F. E.

Harris, Frank

Harris, H. A.

Harris, Hazel

Harris, Mrs. H. A.

Harris, Stella

Harrison, I.

Hart, Medora "Grandma"

Hart, Helen

Hart, Horace

Hart, Otis

Hart, Pauline & Otis

Hart, William James

Hartje, Charles G.

Hartje, Richard

Hartje, Sydney E.

Hartje, Sydney O.

Hartman, Edward

Hartman, Joseph

Hartman, Mrrs. J. L.

Hartman, Earl

Harvey, Elwood

Harvey, Elwood, Sr., "Ford"

Harvey, Sybyl (see Smith)

Harvey, Thelma Pringle

Hasse Alice

Hasse, Beulah

Hasse, Doris

Hauge & Jeannot's Store

Haves, "Red"

Haviland,

Haviland, Mrs.

Hayes, Bill

Hays, Gene

Hays, Kenneth

Heater, Perry A.

Held, Billy

Held, Willette

Helphery, Guy S.

Hemminger, Betty

Hemminger, Chester

Henderson, Sarah J.

Henderson, Thom

Henn, Walter

Herbert, Wm.

Herman, Charlie

Herrick, "Old"

Hessman, Ed

Hetts, C. E.

Higgins, Billy

Higgins, Del

Higgins, Frances "Fanny" Saint

Higgins, Harley

Higgins, Laura

Higgins, Maxine (see Laughlin)

Higgins, Phoebe Saint

Higgins, Ray

Higgins, Sam

Higgins, Sam (son)

Higgins, Shirley

Higgins, William J. "Bill"

Hildebrand, Lela

Hileman, Robert

Hill, (game warden)

Hines, Paul

Hitchner & Hitchner, Inc.

Holbert, S. Ray

Holbert, Samuel B. "Sam"

Holcome,

Hollar, Golda Fulks

Hollister, Ardyth

Hollister, Carl

Hollister, Mr.

Holmes, A. G.

Homes, Carl

Holstein A.

Honberger, Mrs.

Hooker,

Hopkins, W. P.

Houdini,

Howard,

Hoyt, Fern Saint

Hoyt, R. R.

Huck, C. V

Hughes, J. M.

Hulbert, Hull, Bill

Hyatt, "Old Dad"

Hyde, W. L.

Hylent, Arlene

Hylent, Vern

Iff, Bob

Inman

Innes, Ellen Jenkins

Irvin, Joe

Jacques, Sylvia

Jamison, George

Jamison, Laura

Jamison, Lillian

Jamison, Loren "Landy"

Jamison, Montana "Tana"

Jamison, Walter "Tag"

Jamison, Zella Brown

Jeannot & Hauge's Store

Jefferson, "Jeff"

Jefferson, Frank J.

Jenkins, Agnes (see Hampton)

Jenkins, Betty Wilson

Jenkins, Bob

Jenkins, Claude

Jenkins, Clyde

Jenkins, Ellen

Jenkins, Everett

Jenkins, Freeman

Jenkins, "Grandma"

Jenkins, "Grandpa"

Jenkins, Hallie Fairweather

Jenkins, Howard

Jenkins, Jack

Jenkins, John

Jenkins, Laura

Jenkins, Lucille

Jenkins, Lucy Allan

Jenkins, Mary Ellen "Minnie" Hagerty

Jenkins, Merle "Toad"

Jenkins, Richard "Dick"

Jenkins, Robert

Jenkins, Ted "Teddy"

Jess, Dr.

Jewett, Herb

Jewett, Wilbur

Johnson, Julia (see "Jude" LeGault)

Johnson, Bert

Johnson, Bob

Johnson, Leroy

Johnson, Lloyd

Johnson, Mr.

Johnson, Paul

Johnson, Sherman

Johnston, J. M., Rev.

Jones, David "Dave"

Jones, Ed

Jones, Ernest

Kalb, Dr.

Kalslo, Depot

Karl, Joe

Kendall, Orin P.

Kenny, W. M.

Keogh, E. J.

Kerr, Wm. M.

Hershisnik, F. J.

Kincade, Francis

King,

King, Frances

King, Frank

King, Frankie

King, Ina (see Mercer)

King, Jesse

King, John

King, Loren

King, Verda

Kirby, D. D.

Kirby, John Lee

Kirby, Mary C.

Kirschbaum, Harvey

Kiser, Karl

Kittrel, W. A.

Kline, Albert J. "AJ"

Kline, Gerald (Gerard) "Jerry"

Kline, Raymond

Kline, Roland "Red"

Kline, Wilhelma

Knott, Anna

Knott, Elizabeth "Bessie"

Knott, Georgia (see MacSpadden

Knott, Harry

Knott, John Edmund "Henry" or "Ed"

Knott, Louise (see Taylor)

Knutson, Andrerw "Andy"

Knutson, Charles "Charlie"

Knutson, Donna Pringle

Knutson, Elmer

Knutson, John "Johnny"

Knutson, Mary

Knutson, Rhoda

Kock, Elers

Koltze, A. L.

Krause, Bill

Krause, Herman

Krook, Bros.

Kurtz, Nellie

Kurwitz, Donna Jean

Kurwitz, Elmer

Kurwitz, George

Kurwitz, Montana "Tana" Jamison

LaBert, Mrs.

Laffay, Lois (or LaFfey, LaFey)

Lake, Almeda

Lake, Dale

Lake, Lula

Lake, Stanley

Lake, Walter

LaMarche, Geraldine Brooks

Lamb, W. A.

Lang, Mrs.

Lang, Mrs. M.

Lang, John (Rev.)

Lang, M. (Rev.)

Laramie, Merle "Napoleon"

Larson, Anna McDonald

Larson, Betty McNeil

Larson, Bob

Larson, Caroline

Larson, Elizabeth

Larson, Francis

Largon, George

Larson, Henry A.

Larson, Howard

Larson, Madeline Brown

Larson, Margaret (see Cluzen)

Larson, Marienus "Marion"

Larson, Martin A.

Larson, Maude

Larson, Norman "Swede"

Laughlin, Maxine Higgins

Lawyer, Tim

Layton,Patsy Duffy

Lee, Alice

Lee, Eugene L. (Rev.)

Lee, Gertrude

Lee, Jesse

Lee, Mrs. E. L.

Lee, Robert E., (Gen.)

Leeson, Albert "Al"

Leeson, Carol

Leeson, Chester

LeGault, Arthur

LeGault, Beatrice

LeGault, Blossom

LeGault, Julia "Jude" Greer

LeGault, Leonaard

LeMasters, Lee

Lentz, Judge

Lenzi, Ray

Leopold, Dr. Doneita (See Knutson)

Leopold, Harry

Leslie, Marian Weare

Letterman, Mrs.

Lindquist

Lloyd, Dr.

Lode, Geo.

Long, Mrs.

Long, Ross

Lovell, Bros.

Lowell, John

Lowry,

Luckman, Mrs.

Ludwick, Morris

Lumber Co., Comstock

Lumber Co., Lyons, F. W.

Lumber Co., J. Neils

Lumber Co., Karlot

Lumber Co. Mann

Lumber Co. McGoldrick

Lyde, Ed

Lyons, Frank

Lyons, Mrs. Frank

Lyons, York

Lytten, H. D.

MacDonald (see McDonald)

MacSpadden, Donald

MacSpadden, F. E.

MacSpadden, Georgia Knott

Mahoney, Slim

Mallory, Virgil W.

Manicke, Alice

Manicke, Charles

Manicke, Frank

Manicke, Wilma

Marksbury, Joseph

Martin, Charles

Massey, John H.

Matheney,

Matthews,

May, Christie Agnes (See McKay)

May, D. K.

May, Charles "Grandfather"

Maynard, C. L.

Maynard, Charles "Charley"

Maynard, Don

Maynard, Pearl

Maynard, Ruth

McBee, Ruth D. (see Mercer)

McCann, Edna

McCarty, Dan

McClay, W. S.

McClung, Danny

McClung, Hilda

McClung, Ivy

McClung, Walt

McClure, Mr

McConnell, C. F. (Rev.)

McConnell, Dorothy (see Weare)

McConnell, Elizabeth

McConnell, Grace Marie

McConnell, Hugh

McCormick, H. V.

McCory, E. R.

McCrary, Miss

McCully, A. F.

McCully, Ernest

McCully, Fred

McCully, Mona Mae

McCurdy, W. S.

McDonald, Anna (see Larson)

McDonald, Cassie

McDonald, Florence

McDonald, Hattie

McDonald, Mabel

McDowell, Catherine

McDowell, Tom

McDuffy, Maynard

McFarland,

McFarland & Marsky

McFarland, L. D.

McGloughlin, Tom

McGraw, Jack

McKay, Ann

McKay Christie Agnes (see May)

McKay, Francis

McKay, Ingrid Sundgaard

McKay, John Francis

McKay, John H.

McKay, John, Jr.

McKay, Maurice

McKay, Patricia

McKay, Robert "Bob"

McKay, Rose

McKay, Ruth (see Tauscher)

McKay, Tommy

McKee, Marion

McKee, Paul

McKiernan, Mac

McLinden, Melvin

McNeil, Fern

McPhearson, Amy

McQuaide, Ruth Dettwiler

McTice,

Mead, Dan

Mead, Elenita (see Scheffler)

Mead, Lowell

Mead, Margaret

Mead, Petra Paulsen

Mead, (Professor)

Meadows, Angie Thompson

Meadows, Effie

Meadows, Elizabeth "Lizzie" Coombs

Meadows, Ray

Meadows, Roy

Meadows, William "Will"

Meany, J. J.

Mercer, Charles "Chas"

Mercer, Charles Hamilton

Mercer, Cyril

Mercer Essie Mae Thomson

Mercer, George



Mercer, Ina King

Mercer, John

Mercer, Mary "Anna"

Mercer, Mary Ward

Mercer, Ronald "Dude"

Mercer, Ruth D. (see McBee)

Metcalf, Lewis E. (Rev.)

Miller, Ethel "Skeets"

Miller, James "Jim"

Miller, Johnnie

Miller, Kenneth "Kenny"

Miller, Mary Greer

Miller, Mrs.

Minear, Francis "Frank"

Minear, Fred

Minear, Lina Leota "Ollie"

Minear, Ruth

Minnor, Bessie

Minnor, Mr.

Minnor, Richard

Moderie, Joe

Monohan, Mrs.

Monroe, D.A.

Moonen, Tom

Moore, Audrey (see Brixen)

Moore, Bishop

Moore, Camen

Moore, Frank J.

Moore, Reuben

Moore, W. H.

Morrison, M. P.

Moser, Don

Moser, Mrs.

Moser, William (Sheriff)

Mosier, Ada

Mulberg, Ruth

Munson, Chas. "Charlie"

Munson, Vern "Flattail"

Murray, Marshall

Myers, Buzz

Nanny, Paul

Napoleon (see Laramie)

Nash, Albert

Nelsen, Glen

Nelsen, Grace Carmichael

Nelsen, Harvey

Nelson, Dr.

Newberry, Wm. G.

Newell, Roy

Newton, Donald

Newton, Janet

Newton, "Hilda" or "Tillie"

Nippert, (Judge)

Nolan, Albert

Noll, Art

Noll, Bob

Noll, Emma

Norman, Alex

Norton, Chas. H.

Norton, John

Nutting, Wilder (Rev.)

Nye, Mr.

Nylent, Carl

O'Donnell, (lodging house)

Ogelby, Miss

Older, Mrs. Rollo

Older, Rollo

Olds, Bernice

Oliphant, M. M.

Olson, D. S.

Olson, H. R.

Olson, Rodney

Olver, Don

Olver, Felix

Olver, Jack

Olver, June

Olver, Mrs. V. C.

Olver, Roberta J.

Olver, Vivian O.

Orino, Sam

Orr, Alex

Orr, Conrad "Connie"

Ostlund, George "Doc"

Ovnicek, Adolph "Buck"

Ovnicek, Bill

Page & Hill Co.

Pallmer, Theodore

Palmer, C. W.

Parks, Wade R.

Parkland, Lee

Parrot, Frank

Paulson, Dick

Paulson, Stone E.

Pearsall, Don

Peck, Mary

Peek, Dr. E. A.

Perry, Perry A. (sheriff)

Peters, Charley

Peterson,

Peterson, Margaret

Peterson, Milli

Peterson, Ray

Peterson, W. R. "Chuck"

Pettitt, Jack

Phillips, Bernice

Phillips, Clinton

Phillips, George

Phillips, Lester

Phillips, R. E.

Pierce, W. E. (Rev.)

Pilick (or Pilik)

Pinchot, Gifford

Poe, Marshal

Poirer, R. N.

Poirer, Ted

Poole, Chas.

Price, Reese J.

Pringle, Annie (see Winter)

Pringle, Doneita (see Knutson)

Pringle, Harry Howard

Pringle, (Rev.)

Pringle, Thelma (see Harvey)

Prinze, Al

Proctor, Fred

Prouty, J. H.

Pruder,

Purcell, C. H.]Purcell, Ed

Putney, Helen

Pyatt,

Randolph, Tom

Rankin, Attn. Gen.

Rappe, Virginia

Rasmussen, Faye

Rasmussen, Ivan "Ike"

Rasmussen, Mr.

Rasmussen, Mrs.

Rassmussen, Katie Duffy

Raunig, Alois

Ray, Chas

Raynor, Arthur W.

Raynor, Bessie Dingley

Raynor, Bill

Raynor, Edward

Raynor, Fred W.

Raynor, Gilbert

Raynor, Guy

Raynor, Harriet Louise Foland

Raynor, Harry

Raynor, Joel Sherman

Raynor, Ken

Raynor, Laurence

Raynor, Lois

Raynor, Mrs. Gilbert

Raynor, Roy

Raynor, Wesley

Redeye, Earl

Redfern, Jaspar

Reed, H. E.

Reed, Pearl

Regnold, Melvin

Reilly (s;?) Reily

Reist, Geo.

Reuss, F. W.

Rhodes, & Dillard

Richards, Ross

Richardson, Leon

Rillard, (County

Attny.)

Robb, Walter

Robb, Will

Robinson, C. S.

Robinson, Frank

Rollwitz, W. A.

Roosevelt, Pres. Theodore

Roosevelt, Pres. Franklin D.

Ross, (brothers)

Ross, Frank

Ross, Len

Ross, R. R. "Kid"

Roth, Cora Brown

Rowe, (kids)

Rowe, Mr.

Rue, Dr.

Rummley, Pegleg

Runyan, C. W.

Runyon, Red

Ryan, Andy

Ryan, J. E.

Saint, Alice

Saint, Anthony Wayne

Saint, Benjamin F. "Ben"

Saint Bruce

Saint, Don

Saint, Fern Fulks

Saint, George

Saint, Gerald

Saint, H. R. "Bob"

Saint, James C. "Jimmy"

Saint, Montana "Tana"

Saint, Mrs. A. W., "Grandma"

Salisbury, John

Salmon, Dr.

Sanders, Colonel

Sandy, Albert "Andy"

Sanger, C. A.

Sanger, Mrs.

Sasek, Anna

Sasek, Evelyn

Sasek, Louis

Sater, Mr.

Sawyer, Mr.

Scheffler, Clyde

Scheffler, Ednumd "Ed"

Scheffler, Elenita Mead

Scheffler, Ellen

Scheffler, Elmer

Scheffler, Helen

Scheffler, Mabel

Scheffler, Mrs. Clyde

Scheffler, Nellie

Scheffler, Paul Henry

Scheffler, Ruthie

Scholes, William

Schwet, Evelyn

Sellmer, Bob

Sheridan, "Red"

Shove, Loren

Shultz, Harvey

Schumacker, girl

Siegert, Jim

Sinclair, Mrs.

Siria, Carl H.

Skelton, Johnny

Skelton, Nellie Duffy

Skillicorn, Harry

Skinner,

Skoles, Bill

Skoles, Ed

Slagle,

Smith, Benji L.

Smith, Charles (Prof.)

Smith, Homer H.

Smith, Rae B.

Smith, Sybyl E. Harvey

Smith, Wm.

Snider, Robert H

Snyder, Arthur "Art"

Snyder, Ernest "Ernie"

Snyder, Eurrcel

Snyder, Lester "Les"

Snyder, Morris

Snyder, Rena

Snyder, Sylvia

South, M. C.

Stackhouse, C. P.

Stackhouse, Dr.

Stackhouse, Pearl

Stanley, H. H.

Stapley, E. B.

Starr, Dr.

Stewart, S. V. (Gov.)

Stinger, Glen

Stockman, Bill

Stone & Webster

Stover, Ruth

Strawberry (see Bartholomew)

Striker, William Chelcie

Sutherland, George

Swanson, "Swan"

Tabor, kids

Tallmadge, Frank

Tallmadge, Harry

Tallmadge, June

Tallmadge, Les

Tallmadge, Sarah Cobear

Tanner, George W.

Tarr, D. K.

Tauscher, Hubert "Hub"

Tauscher, Ruth McKay

Taylor, Betty

Taylor, Emma

Taylor, Harry

Taylor, Louise Knott

Taylor, Tom

Tempro, Cora

Tempro, Cy

Thayer, Arther

Thayer, Charles

Thayer, Frank

Thayer, Fred

Theleen, D.E. (Capt.)

Thomas, Bobby

Thompson, Angie (see Meadows)

Thompson, L.

Thompson, Mrs.

Thomson, C. L.

Thomson, Charles

Thomson, Dewey

Thomson, Emmett E.

Thomson, Essie (see Mercer)

Thomson, Ruth

Tidland, Mrs.

Tobin & Son

Tomkins, Frank

Toole, Howard (Attny.)

Toothacher, Dr. Doc"

Torgrimson, MAbel

Tranor, Merill

Trickey, Viola

Trist, N. B.

Tunnison, Lyle

Turner, Helen

Ully, Jack

Ulrick, Fieda Weare

Ulrick, Jack

Urner, F.

Van Der Brink, Lena

Van Horn

VanCleve, Theda

Vanderpool, Sam

Vanek, Arthur "Art"

Vanek, Frank

VanVliet, H. J. (Rev.)

Vaughn, Garner

Vign, George

Von Hollenbeck,

Vorderbrueggen, Bert

Vorderbrueggen, Fran

Vorderbrueggen, Mary

Vorderbrueggen, Viola (see Ekstedt)

Wagener, Rena Swanson

Wakeley

Walker, Tommy

Wallett & Pardin

Ward, Mary (see Mercer)

Ward, Jimmy

Watkins, Joe

Watterson, Clarence

Watterson, Mildred

Watterson, Mrs. Vern

Watterson, Vern. W.

Watts, Jim

Waylett, Albertine

Weare Clifford R.

Weare, Clifford A. "Buster"

Weare, Donald

Weare, Dorothy McConnell

Weare, Ethel Baxter

Weare, Lloyd

Weare, Marian (see Leslie)

Weare, Mrs. Peter

Weare, Neal

Weare, Peter

Weare, Richard "Mickey"

Webster, Velma (see Bauer)

Weisenburger, Mr.

Wertz, Mr.

Wheelan, E. W.

Wheeler, Burton K. (Sen.)

Whisler, Frederick D.

White, A. C.

White, George

White, James E.

Wicksell, Charles

Wigal, Jean

Wight, E. J.

Williams, G. C.

Williams, Mr.

Williamson, C. C.

Wilson, Chas.

Wilson, Dr. Clarence True

Wilson H.

Wilson, Homer

Wilson, Nellie Mae

Wilson, Robert "Bob"

Winkleman, Dick

Winter, Annie (see Pringle)

Winter, Burnard "Burnie"

Winter, Mary

Wolf, Wes

Wooodson,

Woolf, Mr.

Woolf, Mrs.

Worstel, Mrs.

Wuerl, Fred A.

Wuerl, Helen R.

Youell, Heath

Younker, Alfred

Younker, Arthur "Art"

Younker, Lloyd

Younker, Lyle

Younker, Jary Easter

Younker, Minnie

Younker, Wanda

Ziegler, Robert

Zimmerman, Ada

_

Vol. 2 Name Index


BEHIND THESE MOUNTAINS VOL. I

Adams, Arthur

Adams, W. C. (J of P)

Ainsworth, A. S.

Allan, Alec

Allan, Frank

Alvord, A. A. (co. attny.)

Anderson, Bertha

Anderson, Bob

Anderson, Frank M.

Anderson, Mrs. F. M.

Anderson, Mrs. Ruby

Andrews, B. B.

Andrews, Mrs. B. B.

Angst, Elmer

Arnold, John

Arthurs, Jack

Atterberry,

Aue, Warren

Ayer, Adelaid M.

Bailor

Baily orhcestra

Baird & Wales

Baird, Homer

Baker, George

Baker, Mr. & Mrs. George

Bales, B. F.

Bartholomew, Ethel

Bartholomew, Ira B. "Strawberry"

Bauer, Clayton "Clate"

Bauer, Granville "Skinny"

Bauer, Irene

Bauer, James (baby)

Bauer, Jos. "James"

Baxter, A. A.

Baxter, Mrs. Lena "Grandma"

Beal, H. J.

Beal, John

Beals, Mrs. John

Beason, J. D. (see Jess)

Beason, J. O. (see Jess)

Bedard, Joe

Beebe, Randall

Behre, C. Edward

Berray, Caspar "Cap"

Berray, Frank

Berray, Jas. A. "Jim"

Bishop,

Bishp,

Blackfoot Lumber Co.

Bomer,

Bonapart,

Bou, Frank

Bourquin, Judge George M.

Bowels, E. L.

Bracy, Ralph

Brady, W. R.

Brand, Flora

Brauer, John H.

Brixen, Audrey Moore

Brockway, Jas.

Brooks, A. N.

Brooks, Alice

Brooks, Joe

Brooks, Hazel

Brooks, Mr.

Bros., Elllis

Bros., King

Bros., Lux

Bros., Ray

Brown, Cora (see Roth)

Brown, Gladys

Brown, John G.

Brown Madeline

Brown, Lillian Drury

Brown, Mr. & Mrs.

Brown, Mrs. Sheldon S.

Brown, Fred (USFS Ranger)

Brown, Sheldon S.

Brown, Zelda

Bryan,

Buck's Store

Buck, Elizabeth (see Mrs. Geo.)

Buck, George H.

Buck, Mrs. George H.

Bump, F. A.

Bunn, Bryant B.

Bunn, Josephine

Burdette, J. W.

Burdette, George

Burdettes, (family)

Burk, Steve, Sr.

Burnette, Mr.

Butler, Dr. W. J.

Buxton, George

Byers, A. E.

Callon, Art

Callon, Frank

Campbell, J. R.

Campbell, Will H.

Cane, Mr. Carbury, Mr.

Carlin, Mr.

Carlson,

Carmichael, Grace

Carmichael, Zenus

Carpy (Mine)

Carter, Fred

Cheel, Mabel Watson

Watson, Mabel (see Cheel)

Clark,

Claxton, Blanche Gordon

Clayton, Austin

Clayton, Charles Neil

Clayton, Christine

Clayton, Earl

Clayton, Elinor "Nan"

Clayton, Grace

Clayton, Mrs.

Cluzen (girls)

Cluzen, Margaret Larson (See Larson)

Coan, Dan

Cobear, Sarah (see Tallmadge)

Cohn, Hyma

Colins, James C. (see Colvin)

Collogan, Clara

Collogan, Joe

Colvin, James C. "Coley"

Compton, Elinor

Conley, Miss

Connally, Frank (see Connelley)

Connelley, Frank

Connelley, John

Connelley, William

Cook, A. C.

Cook, Albert F.

Coolidge,

Cope, Al

Corn, Jack

Corn, Mrs.

Cotton, Hazel

Cotton, Lillian "Lillly" Jenkins

Cotton, Marion

Coxey's Army

Crawford, C. L.

Culligan, "Old"

Cummings, Edna Evans

Daly, Bob

Daly, Bridgett

Daly, Dennis

Daly, Joe

Daly, John

Davies, Alec (or Alex)

Davis, Betty Evans

Davis, Walter

Day, Edward C., US Dist. Attny.

Delano, W.m.

DeLong, Dan

Denson, Mrs. T. J.

Derr, John

Dettinger,

Dettwiler, Emil

Dettwiler, Eugene

Dettwiler, Georgia

Dettwiler, Ralph

Dettwiler, Roy

Dettwiler, Ruth

Dettwilers, (family)

Deveraux, E. L. & Co.

Dillon, Edna

Ding, Sag

Dingley, Stanley

Diver, F. I.

Divers, Amber

Divers, F. I.

Divers, Mrs. Mary E.

Dodds, Rev. F. E.

Dodge, Wagner

Doerschuk, E. E.

Dolan, Tom

Donlan, Edward

Donahue, Col. Dan

Dove, Harmon

Doyle, Andy

Doyle, brothers

Doyle, Mr. & Mrs.

Duffy, Agnes

Duffy, George

Duffy, Jim

Duffy, John

Duffy, Katherine

Duggy, Kathleen "Katie"

Duffy, Margaret

Duffy, Mrs.

Duffy, Patrick

Duffy, Patrick, Sr.

Duffy, Tom

Duncan, James

Dunn, Max

Dunn, Mr.

Dunn, Mrs.

Dushi, Wilbur

Dwight,

Easter, Bernice

Easter, Ella

Easter, Elmer

Easter, Gloria

Easter, Kaie

Easter, Mary

Easter, Millard

Easter, Sterling

Edwards, Jason

Edworthy, B. V.

Ellinghouse, Harriet

Ellinwood, Howard

Ellinwood, Hazel

Ellis, Charles "Billy"

Ellis, Grandma (see Almeda)

Ellis, Almeda

Ellis, Nettie

Ellis, Solon

Ellis, Tommy

Ellis, U. E. "Urie"

Ellis, William

Emard, Georgiana

Emerson, Dempsey

Emerson, Mrs. Dempsey

Engle, Earl

Engle, Grandma Virginia.

Engle, Grandpa Isaac

Engle, Guy J.

Engle, Mrs. E. "Katie"

Eplin, Bertha

Ettien, Sue

Eureka Lumber Co.

Evans, David

Evans, Edna

Evans, Elizabeth Jane

Evans, Grandfather Wm.

Evans, Lillian Raynor

Evans, Millicent

Evans, Mrs. Martha

Evans, Thomas

Evans, Walter

Evans, Warren

Everett, Bob

Fainberg, M.

Faught, family

Fields, Mr.

Fillerup, Barbara

Fillerup, children

Fillerup, Montana

Finnegan, (see Finnigan)

Finnigan, Bill

Finnigan, James "Jim"

Finnigan, Lottie Hazelroth

Finnigan, Wm. C. "Bill"

Fisher, Eva

Fisher, J.

Fleming, Mildred

Florin, J. W.

Foch, Marshal

Foernsler,

Folda, Charles

Folland, Melisa

Fon, Li

Fon, Wong

Fontia, Li

Foote, Fred

Freeman, James "Jim"

Fulks, Alice (Mrs. John)

Fulks, Chas. "Charlie"

Fulks, Fern

Fulks, Golda

Fulks, John

Fulks, Mabel

Fulks, Pearl

Fulks, William

Gamble, Wallace "Wally"

Garber, Miss

Gardner, George

Garred, Chester

Gavin, Emil

Gee,

Geske, Wm. "Bill"

Getty, Agnes

Ginther, W. R.

Gittings, Mr.

Goode, George

Gordon, Al

Gordon, Blanche

Gordon, Granville J. "Granny"

Gordon, Grace

Gordon, Pauline Reithmiller

Gordon, Stella

Gore, Ed "Eddy"

Grandahl, K. E.

Granvill, Richard

Graybill, Adelaine

Graybill, Edith

Green, "Old Man"

Green, Almeda Lake

Green, E. L.

Green, Leda Jenkins

Green, Lyle

Green, Mrs.

Green, Sheriff

Greer, Chester A. "Chess"

Greer, Dan

Greer, Ethel Fulks (Bartholomew)

Greer, Goldie

Greer, Laura

Greer, Mary

Greer, Ruby

Greer, William

Griffin,

Grigsby's Rough Riders

Gunderson, Ole

Hagerty, Mary Ellen (see Jenkins)

Hagerty, Mr.

Hagerty, Mrs.

Hale, Alfred

Hale, Mr.

Hall, Ross

Hammons, Alice

Hammons, Bessie

Hammons, Joe W.

Hammons, Joe & Myrtle (see Hammon)

Hammons, Kenneth

Hammons, Mrs. Joseph

Hampton, Agnes Jenkins

Hampton, Arthur "Art"

Hampton, Edward

Hampton, Florence "Fanny"

Hampton, Margery,

Hampton, Mary

Hampton, Sam

Hampton, Sgt. Geo. E.

Hampton, Stewart

Hannon, Champ

Hansen, Chris

Hansen, E.

Hanson, C. C.

Harding,

Harker, Grandma

Harker, Grandpa

Harker, Harry

Harker, Jay

Harker, Mary

Harris, Emerson Pitt

Harris, Frank

Harris, H. A.

Hart, Roy

Hartman, Joe L. (Sheriff)

Harvey, Ford

Hatch, Pete

Hattery, Dr. H.H.

Haves, Red

Haviland, Bernice

Hayden, "Old Shorty"

Hayes, Paddy

Hayes, Wm. R.

Held, William F.

Helterline, Dr. L. G.

Higgins, Harlen J.

Higgins, Sam

Higgins, William J. "Bill"

Hillman, F. M.

Hippert, W. E.

Hitchcock & Hitchner

Hoan, D. W.

Hobbs, Billy

Holbert, Samuel "Sam"

Hollar, Golda "Goldie" Fulks

Holmes, H. W.

Honberger, Kinney

Hong, Chou

Hoover, President Herbert

Horn, Thomas

Hosea,

Hougland, Fred S.

Hoyt, R. R.

Hull, Phil

Humbird Lumber Co.

Humbolt Lumber Co.

Hyatt, "Daddy"

Hylent, James

Innes, Ellen Jenkins

Iuone, Lea

Jackson, H. D.

Jamison, George

Jamison, Loren "Lanky"

Jamison, Mrs. Zella W. Brown

Jenkins, Agnes

Jenkins, Bob

Jenkins, Ellen

Jenkins, Everett

Jenkins, Freeman

Jenkins, Grandma

Jenkins, Howard

Jenkins, John "Buster"

Jenkins, Leda

Jenkins, Lucy Allan

Jenkins, Mary Ellen "Minnie" Hagerty

Jenkins, Robert

Johnson, A. M.

Johnson, Archie

Johnson Hiram

Johnson, Jude Legault (Fulks)

Johnson, Mr.

Jones, David

Joquist, Roy

Keene, T. M.

Kennedy, John

King Bros.

King, Frank

King, George F.

King, Jesse

King, Loren

Kirschbaum, C. E.

Kirschbaum, Harry E. "Harvey"

Kline, Albert Joseph "AJ"

Kline, Albert M.

Kline, Jerold

Kline, Kenneth

Kline, Raymond

Kline Roland

Kline, Sophia

Kline Wilhelma

Knott, Anna

Knott, Bessie

Knott, Emma

Knott, Georgia

Knott, Henry

Knott, May

Knutson, Andrew "Andy"

Knutson, Charlie

Knutson, Eleanor

Knutson, John "Johnny"

Knutson, Mary

Knutson, Rhoda

Knutson, Ruth

Koppe, Fred

Kraus, Henry, Jr.

Ku, Son

Kutter, Oscar E.

LaFAun, Mr.

LaFfay, Lois (or LaFfey)

LaFollette, Bob

Lake, Almeda

Lake, Dale

Lake, Lula

Lake, Mrs. Walter (see Lula)

Lake, Stanley

Lake, Walter V.

LaMarche, Geraldine Brooks

Lansdon, W. E.

Lapway, Mr.

Larse, Miss

Larson, Anna McDonald

Larson, Bob

Larson, Glen

Larson, Henry A.

Larson, John

Larson H. H. (see Marienus)

Larson, Madeline Brown

Larson, Marienus "Marion"

Larson, Maude E.

Larson, Mrs.

Larson, Sam

LaRue, N. J.

Lauderdale Tramway

Lauderdale Shingle Mill

Lauderdale,

Laughboro

Laughlin, Denver

Laughlin, Maxine Higgins

Layton, Patsy Duffy

Lee, (Chinese)

Legault,

Legault, Arthur

Legault, Julia "Jude"

Legault, Mrs.

Leger, Doc.

Ling, Chow

Little, Frank

Lloyd, Will

Lockman, Earl

Lockman, Mrs. Earl

Long, Gee

Lonie, Wong

Lott, E. H.

Louie,

Love, E. W.

Loveland, L. "Lou"

Lum Chum

Luther, Elsie

Luther, Mr.

Lux, (brothers)

Lux, James

Lyons, Frank B.

Lyons, Mrs. Frank

Lyons, York

Mabie, Joseph

MacGowan, Annie

MacSpadden, Georgia Knott

Malberg, Ruth

Manicke, Herman

Manicke, W. H.

Mansfield, Mike

Marine, Gladys Ellinwood

Marlow, Emory

Marlow, William E.

Martin, D. H.

Mass, Fred

Matheny, O. C.

Mathews, J.

Matice, Bill

Matice, Mrs. Bill

May, Charles

May, Christie Agnes

Maynard, C. L.

Maynard, Charles H. "Charlie"

Maynard, (County Commissioner)

Maynard, Donald L.

Mays, Tom

McBee, Ruth Mercer

McBride, Miss

McCann, Edna

McDonald, Anna

McDonald, Florence

McDonald, Hattie

McDonald, William

McFarlands,

McFee, Clarence

McFee, Elmer

McFee, Jessie

McJunkin,

McKay, Ann

McKay, Annie McGowan

McKay, Bob

McKay, Christie Agnes May

McKay, Francis

McKay, Gene

McKay, Ingrid Sundgaard

McKay, J. F. (Sanders County Commissioner)

McKay, Janet

McKay, John Charles

McKay, John Francis

McKay, John Henry

McKay, Maurice

McKay, Patricia

McKay, Rose

McKay, Ruth

McKay, Thomas

McKiernan, Frank

McKinley, William (Pres.)

McQuade, Ruth Dettwiler

Maynard, C. (Sanders County Commissioner)

Meadows, James

Meadows, Ray

Meadows, Roy

Meadows, Wm. C.

Meath, R. E.

Mercer, Chas.

Mercer, Essie Thomson

Meyer, Henry J.

Meyer, Paul R.

Miles, Geo

Millar, Jim (see Hames Miller)

Miller, Jas. (Jim or James)

Miller, Kenny

Miller, Mary Greer

Minard, P. L

Minear, P. L.

Minear, Frank "Francis"

Minear, Fred

Minton, H. C.

Minton, Mrs. H. C.

Moderie, (family)

Moonan, Thos.

Moore, Audrey

Moore, Carmen

Moore, Frank

Moore, James

Moore, Lottie Hazelroth

Moran, Pat

Moran, Tom

Mosby, Emil

Munson, C. D. "Charlie"

Munson, Ed

Munson, Vern "Flattail"

Murray, Ray

Mussuto, Bernice Easter

Myers, Henry L. (Senator)

Nason, Wm.

Neffner, H. C.

Nelson, Glen

Newlon, Katherine

Newlon, Mr.

Norman, Alex

Nu, Lake

Older, Rollo

Orr, Alex

Oullett, Dick

Parker, J. R.

Parks, Wade P.

Parrot, Frank

Paulen, Miss

Peek, Dr. E.

Penner, Pete

Percy, Clara

Percy, Frank

Perry (a colored man)

Peterson, Albert

Peterson, Alex

Phillips, Enid

Phillips, George

Phillips, George R.

Phillips, Mrs. George

Pilik, Jack

Pilik, Jimmie

Pilik, John

Pilik, Stanley

Powell, Ross

Pringle, Doneita

Prinze, Al

Prinze, Clara Evans

Prongua, (County Commissioner)

Prouty, Jack

Quaw, Miss Mignon

Rader, Benjamin G.

Randolph, Thomas "Tom"

Ranes, Lafayette

Rankin, Jeanette

Rasmussen, Katie Duffy

Ray Bros.

Raynor, Arthur H.

Raynor, Bessie

Raynor, Charles E.

Raynor, Ed

Raynor, Ernest "Ernie"

Raynor, Fred W.

Raynor, Gilbert "Gib"

Raynor, Harold

Raynor, Harriet Louise Foland

Raynor, Henry

Raynor, James "Jim"

Raynor, Joel

Raynor, Leslie

Raynor, Lillian

Raynor, Roy

Raynor, Ruth

Raynor, Sherman

Raynor, Wesley

Regnold, Melvin

Reilly,

Reygle, Edward

Rhoades, Leon

Riley, Adam

Riley, Amos

Riley, Grandma

Robb, Walter

Roosevelt, Theodore (President)

Ross, Kenneth.

Ross, (see Camp, Ross)

Roth, Cora Brown

Roth, Gertrude

Rutledge, R. H.

Saint, Alice

Saint, Anthony Wayne

Saint, Benjamin F. USFS Ranger)

Saint, Fern Fulks

Saint, H. R. "Bob"

Saint, James C. "Jim"

Saint LaFern (see Fern)

Salisbury (mine)

Sand, Agnes

Sanda, Albert O. "Sandy"

Sandy, Charlie

Savage, Geraldine

Scheffler, "Dutch" Henry

Scheffler, Clyde

Scheffler, P. H.

Schiller, John

Schofield, Dr. Charles

Schwint, Adolph

Schwints, "Old" Mr. & Mrs.

Severson, Mrs. Anna

Shields, Carl

Shields, Elmer

Shields, Margaret

Shockey, Roy

Schultz, H. C.

Shumard, Mr.

Sil, Ling

Silcox, F. A.

Simmons, Glen

Skelton, J. W.

Skelton, Johnny

Skelton, Nellie

Skelton, Nellie Duffy

Skinner, Cyriac

Slagle, A.B.

Smith, Bill

Smith, Doc

Smith, Douglas

Smith, Mary

Smith, Fred

Smith, Harold

Smith, Professor Chas. H.

Smith, Sybyl

Smith, Virgie

Spann, W. M.

Spohr, (sheriff)

Spoor, Raymond

St. Clair, Mrs.

Stackhouse, Dr.

Stevens, Supervisor

Stewart, Samuel V. (Gov.)

Strom, Ed

Strom, William

Swanson, "Swan"

Tabor, Reverend.

Tallmadge, Harry V.

Tallmadge, Sarah LeBert (see Foster & Stanley)

Tauscher, Hubert

Tauscher, Ruth McKay

Taylor, Betty

Taylor, Emma

Taylor, Golda

Thompson, David

Thomson, Anna "Annie"

Thomson, Emmett E.

Thomson, Essie

Thomson, Kelly

Thomson, Ruth

Thomson, Urie

Toothacre, "Doc"

Tuttle, Alice

Ully, Jack

Vanek, Mona Leeson

Voorhis, Jerry

Voorhis, J. L.

Wade. I. M.

Wagener, Rena Swanson

Wagner, Gust

Wagner, Louis G.

Warbasse, Dr.

Watson, Eugene

Watson, John

Watson, Mary

Watson, Mathew "Matt"

Watson, Mrs.

Waylette, Albertine

Weare, Clifford A. "Buster"

Weare, Clifford R.

Weare, Emma

Weare, Ethel M. Baxter

Weare, Freda

Weare, Marian

Weare, Peter

Weaver, Jim

Weber, Elizabeth Larson

Weber, Ernest

Weiholt, I. A.

Weylette, Albertine

Wellington, Dewey

Wheeler, Burton

White, A. C.

White,Charles

White, Compton

White, L. L.

Wilcox,

Williams,

Wilson, Elihu

Wilson, Harry

Wilson, Homer

Wilson, Irene

Wilson, President Woodrow

Wilson, Zinc

Wing, Mr.

Winters, Mrs.

Woodson, O. E.

Younker, Alfred

Younker, Lyle

Younker, Mary Easter

Ziegler, Mr.



Monday, March 21, 2011

WAR HEROES, CRIME AND BOOTLEGGERS


BEHIND THESE MOUNTAINS VOL. I

While most of the county residents were at the three-day picnic at Alger, Montana saluting the returned service men, a robbery was taking place at gunpoint in Heron.

SANDERS COUNTY INDEPENDENT LEDGER
July 7, 1919
"The general store of Kinney Honberger, at Heron ...was robbed of goods and money valued at $3,150 by two men shortly before midnight Friday night ... the proprietor and one customer were held up, tied up, and put in the cellar where they finally worked themselves loose and notified Sheriff Hartman...
"Goods stolen consisted of $1,500 in Liberty bonds, $700 in thrift stamps, $750 in cash and three cases of whiskey, valued at $80 each." The robbers used revolvers. "It later developed there were three men in the party and they walked to Heron and escaped the same way, going to Clarks Fork and Hope, Idaho ...
"On Sunday morning Ray Murray, a Milwaukee fireman address unknown and Tom Mays, of Paradise were arrested at Hope and brought to jail ... Murray pleaded guilty.
"The other holdup man is Raymond Spoor, of Sand Point, who got away from Murray and Mays. Spoor had the cash, bonds, and thrift stamps. Spoor was clever enough to get Mays and Murray drunk so he could leave them.
"Roy Hart and Jack Prouty are on the trail of Spoor and it is likely that he will soon be in custody."
###
Noxon's returned servicemen included heros the children could look up to, balancing the other influences in their lives. If life lacked in material things, it was so rich in the adventures of living few children considered themselves poor. But when soldiers returned from the war across the ocean, well, now that was an especially enriching adventure to remember! More exciting even than talking about the cheap crooks who occasionally made headlines.

Sargeant Geo. E. Hampton son of Edward Hampton, a former resident of Noxon, stayed with relatives in Noxon long enough to recount many of his experiences before going to visit his parents at Port Angeles, WA where they'd moved to in 1917.
"Sargeant Hampton has the French decoration for bravery the Croix de Guerre with Bronze Star and Citation Certificate ... awarded by General Petain with the approval of the Commander in chief of the American Expeditionary Forces in France ..."1.
Every school kid who saw it was awed, as schoolteachers read Stewart's citation aloud to them:
"Sargeant Geo. E. Hampton, Co. C 1st Signal Batn. 'Besides establishing telephonic communication between the Regimental post of command and that of the Battalion under violent bombardment, he advanced with the first wave of Marines during a violent attack at Blac Mont on the front and left flank."
Following the war, crimes in Sanders County settled back into normal patterns. Dick Oullett, Geo. Good, Denver Laughlin, Alec Allan, Chester Garred and Walter Davis, jurors in the court of Justice W. C. Adams, found H. J. Beal innocent of stealing a mink skin Mr. McKernin had missed and accused Beal of stealing. County Attorney Alvord presented the states case. A. S. Ainsworth, Esq. defended Beal.2.

Crimes were changing, too. Theodore Roosevelt was president. Changes in the law would soon add new dimensions. Bootlegging to Idaho would change into moonshining and bootleg running from Canada southward.

Since the end of 1915, Washington and Idaho had had a "dry" law, which served to make Noxon dances very popular. Montanans also put liquor in the NPRR tender, burying it, then bring it into Idaho on the train. Swan Swanson, who managed large crews of men who got out timber products for him, said,
"Everett Jenkins bought so damned much whiskey when the country went dry. It would have been dry if he hadn't had all that. He and Bob put in half a carload before the country went dry, you know and had it stashed up. He sold it. He took his whiskey out of the valley.
"They used to make a joke about him going on the train all the time with a suitcase that was always full of whiskey. He got good money for it. He got five and ten dollars a quart for every darn bit of it. That's where he made his money."3.
Emil Dettwiler didn't fool with liquor, being more concerned with the problem of getting across the river to Heron to sell the vegetables he grew to the store, or to ship them out of the valley. The river had a high current and to get across the river in a rowboat you had to row way upstream, get out to the current, then row like heck to get across before it floated you too far down stream and into the rocky disaster of the Heron Rapids. The same process was used to return.

But every once in a while someone would untie his boat and it would get down the river. Dettwiler had to build about five different rowboats to cross the Clark's Fork. One particular boat would carry about two tons of freight across the river.

One day when he went to use it, someone had chopped off the tree that he'd left his prized boat chained and padlocked up to. So Emil walked down the river to Clark's Fork, looking for it.
"It was 1918, when World War I was being fought," Ruth Dettwiler said.
"It was taken and used for transporting moonshine to Idaho. My dad walked all the way to Clarks Fork and all the way back searching both sides of the river for it. He'd even asked John Derr to let him know if he saw it."4.
 He talked to Derr, a businessman, about his loss, telling him about the cost of lumber to build it. When he got back to the railroad bridge there were two army boys. They said they'd been there about 10 days, guarding the bridge.

The soldiers told him the boat had gone by the day before, being towed by a big powerboat. Emil learned that Derr had been using his boat to haul cases of liquor from Cabinet.
"Archie Johnson, a fiddler with a big wart on one side of his face and big bushy mustache, always chewing tobacco, would get his fiddle out and play for us," Austin Clayton said. "He owned a team of horses.
"Archie would get his team and bring a case of whiskey from the Idaho line down to Cabinet. Then they'd transfer it to the boat on the river where it would be run down to Sandpoint for sale."5.
Noxon's only two entertainment businesses were Bill Finnigan's Saloon and Charlie Maynard's Saloon. Both enjoyed a lively trade on Main Street, serving drinks and having card tables and pool tables where men gathered. Finnigan had a victrola and many records and while Saturday nights got loud, they were circumspect for their time. Men argued, discussed, enjoyed games and drank hard liquor.

Until - prohibition became effective with passage of the Bolstead Act, effective at midnight December 30, 1918, making it illegal nationwide to sell alcoholic beverages.

That ended Finnigan's saloon business. He closed up. Charlie Maynard's saloon business ended, too, in 1918. He gave it to his son, Don, who turned it into a poolhall and card hall where men still gathered to play poker, until laws ended that, too.

Finnigan was in the county jail awaiting trial. He died there. His place stayed vacant until Jim Finnigan, his brother, sold it to Mrs. Ethel Bartholomew. Ethel and her sister, Jude Legault Johnson, converted it into a restaurant. They operated it in conjunction with the rooming house they had in a cabin behind the restaurant.

But were men really going to give up their liquor? Before long making moonshine became a way of livelihood for many area residents all across the country. Western Sanders County was certainly no exception.

Booze wasn't only coming in from Canada. Albert Sandy, who lived far up Pilgrim Creek, soon had the reputation for making premier whiskey. Also a liquor running business at Heron sent regular loads out over the west fork of Elk creek over Divide Ridge by packhorse out of Montana into Idaho. It was quite successful.6.
"Old Shorty Hayden, he was a bootlegger," Lanky Jamison said. "He sold it. I was fishing up on Elk Creek and I walked right into his still. You know, he was running it. You could smell it. Not everyone was involved in it, of course. Not the Chinamen nor Clifford Weare, for example.
"I never seen Chinamen bootleg," Weare said. "Maynard done the bootlegging. And a fella named Red Haves here. Red Haves. And Ethel Bartholomew, she done the selling. And Albert Sandy, he lived up on there on Pilgrim Creek. He made the best whiskey, they said.
"Everybody pret' near, 'ceptin Cliff Weare, hahaha. I never. They wanted me to. This Red Haves and Coley Calvin bootlegged. He made it up there. He didn't sell it.
"I was clearing land on my homestead and Red Haves wanted me to. 'I'll pick you up a still and you run it in your clearing here and they'll never suspect you of it,' he said. He'd bring me over everything at night, 'And all you gotta do is keep a fire under it.' But I never done that. Hahaha.7.
"Albert Sandy. Albert Sandy, he would tell me a funny story. He got an order for 10 gallons of bootleg whiskey, of moonshine. So he said he put it in a pickup truck. He had an old truck. And he started to Spokane with it.
"'I kept a pint out to drink on the way because it was pretty cold,' he said.
"He'd never drove in the city, or anything, and he started down the street, looking for this place. Well, he was driving on the wrong side of the street. So pretty soon they hailed him (cop stopped him) and they said, 'Where you going?'
"He told 'em he come from Montana and where he wanted to go. They seen he was drinking a little, you know, the sheriff or whoever he was. 'Get over and I'll drive you down to where you want to go,' this sheriff told him.
"Albert, he moved over, and they drove him down to the jail! Hahaha. 'C'mon. You can leave your truck right in here. It won't go no place.' "So Sandy went in, and the sheriff put him in jail. The next morning he was brought before the police judge.
"'What's this man charged with?' "'He's driving on the wrong side of the street and he's drinking, and don't know where he's a goin', and so on."
"Sandy said, 'I looked at the police judge and I knew I'd seen him somewhere before. But I don't know where. And I looked at him quite a while then it come to me. He was up there on Pilgrim Creek fishing. Him and two other guys was there and one of them go so drunk,' Sandy says, 'that he couldn't get into the truck and they loaded him in. They'd bought the whiskey from me'.
"The police judge said, 'Where you from?' "'Noxon'. "'Your name's Albert Sandy?' "'Yah.' "'You live on Pilgrim Creek?' "'Yah.' "'Well, next case,' the judge said. 'Let his case go until morning.' "So Sandy says, 'They put me back in the jail and I stayed there all night, the next night, and the next morning they went down and the judge said, 'Your name is Albert Sandy, and you never drove in the city before, did you?' Sandy said he hadn't.
"'Well,' the judge said, 'you was driving on the wrong side of the street.' "'Well, I might a been. I didn't pay no attention,' Sandy said.
"The judge said, 'For this time, case is dismissed.' "Sandy said the judge was the fella who was so drunk they had to load him up when he was fishing. "'I went out and looked, and my ten gallon of whiskey was gone. I turned around and drove back to Noxon.' "They'd got the booze and turned Sandy loose." Weare always laughed when telling the story.
It isn't likely that the editor was laughing when he wrote in the August 7, 1919 edition of Sanders County Independent Ledger,
"A party of Washigton (sic) bootleggers caused considerable excitement in the west end of Sanders County on last Friday, and gave the local officers quite a chase, resulting in the arrest of five of the bootleggers and confiscating of 55 gallons of whiskey and two Super Six Hudsons and an Oldsmobile.
"The party of bootleggers had gone to Missoula from Spokane to purchase 120 gallons of whiskey from Geo. Miles. On Thursday evening about 7 o'clock they went to the old brickyards where Miles had the whiskey cached and it was put in the cars and just as it was loaded one of the bootleggers came up and ordered all to hold up their hands."
Miles was a U. S. Revenue agent. The bootleggers figured out that it was a frame up. Miles fought with one man, who declared he was also a revenue officer. The others then jumped in and Miles was beaten badly before the bootleggers drove away.
"Miles came to in a few hours and rushed to the Sheriffs office where word was sent out to stop the cars and Deputy Sheriffs Roy Hart and Jack Prouty were on the watch here. The cars came to town about 2:30 Friday morning and they split up taking side streets and the officers, including Sheriff Hartman who had come down to catch (NPRR train) No 4 started bombarding the cars with their revolvers, but failed to disable any, although it was afterwards learned that one car was hit in three places and a bloody handkerchief was found in the car that was hit.
"The officers with I. M. Wade and his speeder then followed the cars and at Trout Creek left word to phone to Noxon which side of the river the cars were coming. The cars started up the river and the word was phoned that they were coming up the north side but they evidently started that way to fool the officers on watch, as they came back and crossed the bridge and got by Noxon on the other road.
"One car got as far as the Clarks Fork ferry when the occupants John Arnold and Wm. Nason were arrested and brought back here and later taken to Missoula. The whiskey had been cached and the occupants of the other car abandoned them.
"On Saturday J. Mathews with his lawyer A. B Slagle of Spokane arrived here and tried to claim one of the cars, but it happened the victim of the holdup, Miles, was here with Sheriff Green, of Missoula, and he identified Mathews as one of the gang and he was placed under arrest and taken to Missoula with Arnold and Nason.
"On Monday another car was recovered at the W. R. Ginther ranch where it was left by the men, saying it was broke down and they would go after repairs.
"Fifty-five gallons of the whiskey and the Oldsmobile are at Sandpoint where Sheriff Spohr contends that it is contraband of Idaho as it was found on that side of the line. "But the local officials expect to show Sheriff Spohr that he is mistaken. "The bootleggers certainly made a supreme effort to reach the Idaho line, their time from Plains to Thompson Falls was 35 minutes and they drove at a speed of 50 to 60 miles an hour all the way."
 ###
While the revenue men were looking for the three cars, Sheriff Joe Hartman's friend, Clifford Weare, said that Hartman didn't want to catch the moonshiners. The county judge was a southerner who kept a big jug of moonshine in his safe. The bootleggers were tried by him with no convictions being made. Shultz, who was quite a gambling man, was the county attorney. The three of them were in cahoots.8.
SANDERS COUNTY INDEPENDENT LEDGER
September 9, 1920
"So long as most people consider the prohibition law a joke, so long will bootleggers abound. U.S. District Attorney Edward C. Day says many persons think it a fine trick to operate illicit stills and peddle intoxicants."
The law officers know booze comes in from Canada regularly and believe airplanes, flying over the valley, are carrying moonshine. A new era has fingered its way into the valleys behind the shining mountains of Montana. Jim Saint got rid of his team of horses and remodeled his long, narrow building, just west of Henry Larson's home. Removing the horse stalls, he made a garage for the Baby Overland car he'd bought, brand new. He was out of the logging business and into bootleg running.9.

FOOTNOTES
  1. Sanders County Independent Ledger, August 14, 1919.
  2. Sanders County Independent Ledger, November 6, 1919.
  3. Swan Swanson, tape-recorded oral history January 15, 1970
  4. Ruth Dettwiler McQuaide, oral history April 19, 1988
  5. Austin Clayton, oral history, July 12, 1982.
  6. Heron Reminisce Day, July 12, 1982.
  7. Clifford R. Weare, tape-recorded oral history, March 10, 1972.
  8. Clifford R. Weare, tape-recorded oral history, March 10, 1972.
  9. H. R. Bob Saint, tape-recorded oral history, November 18, 1983.
  

RED CROSS AND DEFENSE COUNCIL FORUMS


BEHIND THESE MOUNTAINS VOL. I

Before the settlers organized their cooperative store, and during the time they were just beginning to experiment with self-help, pressures from the state and federal government were escalating.

On February 7, 1918, the weekly newspaper informed readers that,
"A meeting of the executive board of the Noxon temporary Red Cross society was held Saturday evening in Peek's hall to complete a permanent organization and elect its officers. The chairman, Mrs. Elizabeth E. Buck, gave a talk on the work done by the temporary organization and then outlined the work to be done by the permanent organization."
The temporary organization was formed four months earlier, on October 18, 1917, with 14 members and $14 in the treasury. In those four months membership increased to 125. Total amount of the funds collected during that time, $355.92, the largest single donation received was $10 from B. B. Bunn, owner of a sawmill on Pilgrim Creek.

Annual dues netted $121; miscellaneous income from various community fund raising activities provided $234.92. After spending $251.09, a balance of $104.83 remained in Noxon's Red Cross treasury.

Officers of the temporary organization were re-elected to continue their work. Mrs. Elizabeth E. Buck, Chairman, Mary Divers, Vice-chairman, Maude E. Larson, Secretary, Florence 'Fanny' Hampton, Treasurer, and Enid Phillips formed the executive committee.
"The hard time ball given by the Noxon branch of the Red Cross Saturday evening was a decided success, both socially and financially," the editor told readers. "The fines imposed on those whose dress did not answer the requirements of the women police appointed for the occasion afforded considerable amusement and netted $63. The total proceeds of the evening were $108.61, which included membership fees and donations."
A month later, the newspaper reported in the February 11, 1918 issue that,
"More than $200 was cleared for the Red Cross at the dance, basket social and auction sale Saturday evening, and a large crowd which included people from Heron, Trout Creek and other points enjoyed a very pleasant social time. Rollo Older of Trout Creek, acted as auctioneer and sold 48 baskets for $158. A crocheted scarf donated by Mrs. Ruby Anderson was raffled off to B. B. Bunn, bringing $20, and other donations, consisting of canned fruit, crocheted articles, handkerchiefs and one fine Plymouth Rock hen given by Mr. Matheny, were auctioned off."
People in the community continued to support the Red Cross, mainly through social gatherings the ladies arranged. Cloth, another item the nation at war called for, was turned into yet more ways to have fun.

February 14, 1918 the newspaper heralded their efforts,
"After the Community meeting Saturday evening, February 16, a rag dance will be held at Peek's hall. It is given under the auspices of Chas. H. Smith. One of the unique features of the dance will be the requirement of admission for the ladies. Each lady who enters will be asked to present a rag at least two feet square. At midnight, the Red Cross ladies will serve one of their usual good suppers. A good time is assured all who come."
Chas. Smith played piano, accompanied by a drummer who came from Plains, Montana, whose name is lost to history.
A group of foresters on the way to town from Thompson Falls Ranger Station. Circa 1912. Note the 'dolled up' stump. Courtesy Granville and Pauline Gordon collection.
Controversial solicitings and organizations drove more wedges in the community. A call was made on the pocketbooks of the home front when "The Boys in France" tobacco fund was devised. To refuse to support the community efforts to raise funds for it could also be construed as pro-Germanism. Whether you believe in smoking or not was immaterial.1.

Stump decorated by forest service
rangers near Thompson Falls Ranger
Station, Thompson Falls, Montana,
circa 1912. Courtesy Granville 'Granny'
and Pauline Gordon collection.
Early in 1917, Governor Samuel V. Stewart created the Montana Council of Defense. It ran for almost a year as a quasi-legal body before the Extraordinary Session of the 15th Legislature made the council a legal state agency.

After February 1918, ORDERS passed by the council carried the strength of Montana Law. Violation of any of the ORDERS was punishable by not more than one year in jail or by a fine not to exceed $1,000. Included were:

ORDER No. 1. No parade or public demonstration will be held without the permission of the Governor.
ORDER No. 2. All persons not working in useful and legitimate jobs for at least 5 days per week will be considered 'vagrants' and must register with local authorities. Punishable by fine of $1,000 or a sojourn in county hail up to a year or by both.2
ORDER No. 3. The German language will not be permitted in any Montana schools for churches; specified books (and other books deemed pro-German) will be removed from libraries.
ORDER No. 6. County Councils will created and enforce herd districts.
ORDER No. 7. The State Council will investigate and hear all matters involving "public safety," exercising subpoena power and the power to enforce its decisions.
ORDER No. 9. All burning will be prohibited during the months of June, July, August and September.
ORDER No. 10. During August, September and October, businessmen will make only one delivery each day, thereby freeing their employees for harvest work on local farms.
ORDER No. 12. No new newspapers will be created in the state; weekly newspaper will be prohibited from publishing more than once per week.
ORDER No. 17. No dance or benefit will be held without the permission of the County Council of Defense.3.

The State Council engaged John G. Brown to act in the capacity of a special prosecutor to prosecute any violations of the council's order.

Henry Larson, living with his parents in Thompson Falls, but oftimes clerking for Dr. Peek in his store at Noxon, was named chairman of Noxon's council on the County Council of Defense in March, 1918.4.

The editor of the The Sanders County Independent Ledger performed a distinct service for his readers by reporting the following information, when in May, no one from Noxon attended when a county defense society was formed in a meeting held in Thompson Falls.

He wrote, it was
"decided that the applications for membership should be passed on by a committee appointed by the executive committee. The proceedings of this committee are to be kept secret, as are the names of the ones who compose it.
"The records of all those who desire to affiliate with the society will be investigated by this committee and if shown to be 100 percent American, the application will be accepted; if there is any evidence of pro-German, anti-American or peace-at-any-price sentiment, the person will not be eligible for membership.
"The object of the society is to promote every project that tends toward hastening victory for the United States and its allies, the protection of every patriot's liberty, and the suppression of all pro-German and seditious propaganda, or anything else that ends toward impairing American war activities."5.
Noxon men went instead to the homestead of Mrs. T. J. Denson. Saws, axes, and fires were the tools of a clearing bee, which cleared about three acres of land.

(insert photo)
Caption: Square dancers at the platform built of rough lumber on the Patrick Duffy ranch. Circa July 4th celebration 1920. Elizabeth Larson Weber is eating an ice cream. Courtesy Ruth Dettwiler McQuaide collection.

Effects of World War I on the community grew weekly. Patriotic fever allowed imposition of increasing majority rule – in aspects of life styles never before tampered with.

Aliens were ordered to register and be classified as alien enemies.6. Women, including American-born women who were married to aliens, all males 14 years and older, and even those who had declared an intention to become citizen by taking out first papers of naturalization, were ordered to register for classification. Some Noxon settlers were included. Later it would cause great hardships.7.

By fall the government was asking every household to save and send in their pits from peaches, apricots, cherries, plums, olives, prunes and dates, and the shells of Brazil nuts, hickory nuts, walnuts and butternuts to be forwarded to the manufacturers of gas masks for the protection of our soldiers from poison gas being used in European campaigns.8.

Aside from whatever bickering and jealousies that arose over patriotisms and politics, generosity ran high. Montana was the top state in contributing war work funds to the YU.M.C.A. in "the amount subscribed in proportion to the population." The quota was $90,000 and people subscribed $167,068.33. Sanders County contributed equally to the rest of the state.9.

Montanans were equally generous with sending their sons off to the war, and the weekly newspaper proclaimed their services.
SANDERS COUNTY INDEPENDENT LEDGER
February 21, 1918
"The records of the Adjutant General's office to February 1st show that Montana has given 5,460 men to the regular army since last April on a quota of only 752. These are voluntary enlistments and do not include the thousands that are in the national army, national guard, navy or marines. In this respect, Montana leads all of the states of the nation in proportion to its population."
(insert photo)
Caption: 4th of July, circa 1920. One of the many lively square dances held on a platform in the woods near Heron, Montana. At right are Mary and Harry Harker. A platform was built of rough-cut lumber in the area of the Patrick Duffy place. Courtesy Ruth Dettwiler McQuaide collection.

FOOTNOTES
  1. Sanders County Independent Ledger, Janaury 31, 1918.
  2. Sanders County Independent Ledger, May 2, 1918.
  3. Montana Magazine, Nov-Dec. 1990 and Sanders County Independent Ledger, var., 1918.
  4. Sanders County Independent Ledger, March 21, 1918.
  5. Sanders County Independent Ledger, May 23, 1918.
  6. Sanders County Independent Ledger, January 24, 1918.
  7. Sanders County Independent Ledger, May 23, 1918.
  8. Sanders County Independent Ledger, October 24, 1918.
  9. Sanders County Independent Ledger, February 14, 1918.
  10. Sanders County Independent Ledger, February 21, 1918.

Saturday, March 19, 2011

Vol. 3 INTRODUCTION


BEHIND THESE MOUNTAINS VOL. I

"History books which contain no falsehoods ~~ are extremely dull." Anatole France
Here's to a lively read!
Mona Leeson Vanek

Good humor and optimism buoyed the pioneers struggling to recover and survive the barren years following the whirling holocaust of the 1910 fire. Two days of roaring flames had ravaged the virgin timber greening northwestern Montana's steep mountain slopes and ridges. Timber harvesting, the only significant industry in the Clark's Fork River valley became ankle deep ash and shattered dreams. Desperate years tempered those who remained, hardening them to salvage and survive.

Before recovery was complete, World War I, prohibition, and changing social and political attitudes beleaguered them as the crucible of war and patriotism remolded allegiances, fracturing trusts and friendships still in their infancy.

Interest rates soared, lumbermen and miners went broke and some pioneers left. But the isolated valleys opened to settlement scarcely thirty five years, nestled between lofty, spectacular peaks with names such as "Squaw Peak", "Billiard Table", "Sawtooth", "Ibex" and "Chicago", continued to attract people. Enthusiastic planners came with all their worldly wealth, then too quickly went broke and left, to be followed by a new wave of dreamers seduced by the shining mountains ringed by sparkling waters.

Deer and bear and coyotes still skirted the edges of lamplight spilling from log cabin windows across deep winter snows, lighting the darkness. While the scattered population in this remote haven in the Rockies had only wagon roads and ferries to get about on, the automobile began to replace the horse, altering their lifestyles - and their dreams.

While political beliefs were shaping and reshaping throughout Montana and the United States, state government and federal government activities and policies wielded major influences.

Agriculture began to augment timber as an economic base in the lands where the Cabinet National Forest managed the timber. Ranchers in the valleys grew cattle, hay, spuds and families.

As timber and loggers flowed through the valley, changes also tricked in. Some of each stayed. The United States forest service, which had established tenuous roots against strong opposition in 1906, gained ground after the 1910 fire threatened not only their existence, but also the very sustenance of life for everyone in the valley.

Slowly US Forest Service ideology spread like rapacious weeds whose flowers bring beauty while its roots infiltrate the environment. When preservationist butted heads with financial solvency, settlers' quickly innovated ways to use this new partner to their own advantages.

Living conditions improved, from the simple nomadic wagon train life, simple snug log cabins sans water or electricity, abreast with timber and agriculture markets. Social activities and community culture became more complex as education, religion and gathering places expanded.

Refusing to relinquish the land so recently hard won, those who stayed laughed at their hardships and determined not to flounder. With little more than faith, hard work and tenacity, they built a bridge, a church and a high school.

Grandmas rocked the babies while mammas whirled at Hard-Times dances. "Use it up or wear it out. Make do or do without," became their motto. Patches, if clean and neat, were honorable.

Bountiful harvests of a variety of flavorful wild berries, venison, grouse, and bear, the unlimited fish offered free makings for gourmet meals.

Worldwide events affected valley residents mainly through economics. When timber didn't sell, times were lean. As tourism money flowed past the valley on the wheels of the automobile, on other roads through other valley routes, settlers and businessmen enlisted the government to funnel it in.

Highway building was added to bootlegging and new arrivals as the newest economic enterprise.

Twelve years after "the boys came marching home" insistent prodding and pushing finally resulted in Forest Highway 6, a through roadway, blasted, shoveled and graded ninety miles west from Plains, Montana to the Idaho-Montana border. This highway broadened their trade routes and opened new possibilities for tourism.

Never the less, as the decade of the 1930's loomed on the horizon, those who'd come to the valleys behind these mountains, couldn't rub two nickels together to leave them.

All were captivated: Those who came, set deep roots, and reveled in the simple way of life amid the mountain splendor; those entrapped by poverty into a way of life whose quality lay in the beauty and bounty of the mountains and its peoples; and the government, who owned most of the land.

This carefully documented history of northwestern Montana, sixty miles south of the Canadian border, continues the story of the life and times of a singularly independent and resourceful people, focusing understanding of the mountains and it's inhabitants.

Peep into personal histories; examine geography, climate, and events that made the population a fragmented and transient one in Montana's western mountains.

Exclusive tape-recorded histories, personal letters, courthouse records, newspaper files, Northern Pacific Railroad files, Bureau of Mines compilations and many other documentary sources collected over more than twenty years, bring refreshing insight into the history of western Montana and the people who sojourned there.


Friday, March 18, 2011

COMMUNITY LIFE ALTERED BY WAR


BEHIND THESE MOUNTAINS VOL. I

(insert photo)
Caption: George Jamison and Zella Brown Jamison wedding party, May 13, 1912. L to R: Zella, George, Madelains Brown, Katie Engle, Cora (Brown) Roth with daughter, Gertrude, Sheldon S. Brown, Lillian Drury Brown, and the minister. Lillian, born 1866-died 1949; Sheldon, born 1867-died of a heart attack in 1933 in the boiler room of Noxon school; George Jamison, born April 12, 1876 - died April 4, 1973; Zella Brown Jamison, born June 11, 1897 - died March 17, 1971. Courtesy Loren 'Lanky' Jamison collection.

Sheldon S. Brown's original place, a little southwest of Noxon, was a big house. Brown built it shortly after arriving in 1905. It was a log house to begin with. Then they smoothed the boards down inside and framed the two-story house inside and outside with lumber.

Mr. Brown had three pretty daughters. Cora, Zella and Madeleine. All the fellas around town were sweet on one or the other, it seemed.
"When Mr. and Mrs. Brown came to town in their two seated buggy, they, of course, rode in front. A couple of the girls rode in back," Carmen Moore said.
"Brown went to town to the store and bought some nails. The storekeeper urged him to get quite a few. But Brown said, 'Oh, I won't need many nails. Just get a few. We can pick enough up off the ground to finish the building.'
"For a time, Jim Finnigan, who was a pretty darned good carpenter, was kinda sweet on one of the girls. When Brown's were building their first house all the young boys around the country who knew anything about carpentry were out to Brown's ranch helping him.
"Jim was up on the roof, shingling it, right in the middle of the summer. It was hot. Jim got sunstroke. He fell off of the roof and down on the ground and it like to busted him up. Ever after that he never could sweat. It did something to his system."1.
During 1917, which was another hot summer,  S. S. Brown began building a new framed lumber, five-room house next door to George Buck's, planning to move his family into Noxon from his agricultural ranch west of town.2.

George Buxton and Solon Ellis weren't among the helpers this time, because Solon was working in Burke, Idaho and George sent in his application to join the forest regiment of the Army being raised for immediate service in France.3.

(insert photo)
Caption: George Jamison and his bride,Zella Brown Jamison on their wedding day, May 13, 1912. Courtesy Loren 'Lanky' Jamison collection.

Forty-one year old Jim Finnigan wasn't helping on this house, either. Frank Moore, married to Lottie Hazelroth Moore, had deserted his wife, their little daughter and their infant son. Jim had successfully courted the destitute young mother, winning her trust until she finally said, "I do."4.

Now five-year-old Audrey Moore and her brother, Carmen, were living in a neat, little white house across the street from the schoolhouse. Audrey yearned with all her heart to go to school so the teacher allowed her to come in March. In the fall, she started first grade over again.

Lottie, quite deaf since childhood from scarlet fever, ministered liberal doses of loving care. Onion syrup cooked on the back of the old cook stove was her favorite for fevers and colds.

Lottie didn't knit, so she it didn't affect her when the army sent out a warning to women, via the Sanders County Independent Ledger, advising them not to knit socks;  instead they were expected to knit scarves and wristlets. The army was buying socks for 15 cents a pair. It cost women 50 cents a pair, not counting time and energy, but those who were aware of it could get a new type of knitting machine, supplied by the Red Cross. (http://www.csmsa.org/WarsHistory.htm.) Lottie just sighed. She wasn't inclined to attend community gatherings anyway.

Pauline Gordon flung aside her needles. She didn't attempt to drive over rugged Tuscor hill when she got word her husband was gravely ill in Plains. The train was still the fastest means of transportation. She took it. Granny Gordon was injured in a railroad speeder accident and had received a serious gash on the back of his head when it left the track.
"He is a bleeder and the loss of blood from the gash cut in his head has left him very weak. He was on his way to consult a physician when the accident occurred and his sickness, the shakeup and the loss of blood have left him in bad shape. He went out to his work (with the forest service) last Friday but was forced to return to Plains Saturday. Mrs. Gordon went to take care of him. He is very ill."5.
As often happens, the news story wasn't precise. Granny was gravely injured, but he wasn't a bleeder. It was his wife who passed a hemophiliac gene to their male descendants.

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Caption: Lottie Hazelroth Finnigan and her two children, Audrey Moore (forn March 11, 1913) and Carmen Moore. Circa 1919. Another son, Bill Finnigan, was born December 6, 1919. courtesy Audrey Moore Brixen collection.

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Caption: Lottie Hazelroth Moore married James Finnigan in 1918. Courtesy Audrey Moore Brixen collection.

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Caption: Pauline Reithmiller Gordon with daughter Grace, at Bull River Ranger Station, circa 1908-09. Courtesy Granvill 'Granny' and Pauline Gordon collection.

All summer long, while hot winds and rainless days sucked moisture from the countryside, fund raising wrung every possible cent from each little hamlet threaded together by the rails and the Clark's Fork River, like a necklace of uniquely similar jewels. No energy or diligence was spared in proving loyalty and support to America at war.

Lula Lake heartily welcomed fall rains. While others made plans to attend Sanders County's 7th annual fair at Plains, she prepared to leave the Bull River Ranger Station to move into Noxon. Her baby was due shortly.

She'd miss seeing all the Indian teepees, their colorful costumes and dances and all the other spectator entertainments this year that she read about in the August 21, 1917 Sanders County Independent Ledger fair article,
"Dr. L. G. Helterline, the secretary of the County Fair announces that two cars will be sent to the west end of the county to gather up material for the county fair. The same plan as last year will be followed.
"The two cars will come up as far as Trout Creek, and, as expenses are paid by the fair management, exhibits are taken to the fair and returned without cost to the owners. A car and a half will be used for livestock and half a car for the Boys and Girls Club Exhibits and other exhibits.
"The girls in the canning club of District 6 will give canning demonstrations at the fair. Emil Dettwiler the leader of the boys and girls club at Heron is raising money to take all of the Heron Club."
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Caption: Betty Evans Davis and Lillian Raynor Evans, circa 1920. Note flapper-style dress and water pump in foregraound. Courtesy Edna Evans Cummings collection.

At the county fairgrounds during October 11-13, agricultural pursuits were promoted grandly to the crowd of cheering spectators. Nine gasoline powered tractors, dragging from two to six plows, tore over 89 acres of land adjacent to the fair grounds, 'as if racing cars', to demonstrate the efficiency of machinery on the farm.

Dust flew from behind the clods of sod in the exhibition arranged by the fair management this season for the first time, and scattered the crowd that closed in tightly around the different machines.

Aeroplane flights added to the roar. Horses rolled their eyes and jangled harness; stomping nervously around the trees where they were tethered.

The Better Babies Show, judged by all the doctors in the county, adhered strictly to the 'Better Baby Standard Rules.' All babies under three years old were eligible for entry.

"Next year," Lula thought. On November 7, 1917 she went into labor at Mrs. Baxter's house where she and her family had moved, from the Bull River station. Mrs. George Buck, who was a trained nurse, hurried from Buck's Grocery Store across the street to attend the delivery; she held him by the heels as Lula's baby boy gave a lusty cry.

They named him Dale. His older brother, Stanley, and sister, Almeda, were fascinated with the blanketed bundle. Their grandmother, Mrs. Almeda Ellis, gave thanks for her daughter's safe delivery in the mountain village so far from doctors and hospitals.

Cliff Weare was less than elated over the birth. He knew Walter and Lula were good, thrifty, hard working people,  but they'd given up their homestead to move into the ranger's building with Walt accepting a cook job with the forest service that Weare hated.

Cook, trail maintenance, look after horses, fix telephone lines and maintain the government's buildings. What sort of life was that for a man in exchange for his 160 acres of free land? It didn't set well with Cliff and he fumed to his wife, Ethel.

Now Lake's were staying in Ethel's mother's house. Mrs. Buck, too, was a good woman, he thought. He sharply disagreed with big, fat George Buck, considering him to be less concerned with the fate of his store patrons than he was with his pocketbook.

Still, Cliff sanctioned his wife gathering with the community women, taking her small welcoming gift to the babe and his mother. But let the damned Liberty war stamps stay unsold! Ethel had better not buy any. Let people talk. He'd be damned if they'd coerce him.

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Caption: Picture of Bull River Ranger Station includes the three young Gordon girls, circa 1912-15. In the 1970s the log building was placed on the 'not to be maintained' list by the Noxon Ranger District where it remained, weathered and intact, until during the 1990s when it was restored in a cooperative effort of the Cabinet Wilderness Historical Society and the U.S. Forest Service. Their goal was to see it used to educate furture generations about the important milestones accomplished by the forest service in the northern region. However, about 2007-09 the forest service began renting the historic building out in the summer to visitors. Courtesy Ranger Granville 'Granny' and Pauline Gordon's collection.

As the war toiled on, Y.M.C.A. funds, Liberty Bonds, and Red Cross funds being subscribed were taking precious coins from pocketbooks.

Not everyone in the valley considered himself or herself fortunate when they read about the situation in Europe. The pinch of war was decidedly uncomfortable. Although ingenuity and energy flourished to make as pleasant as possible the tapping of money needed to support the war, support was a luxury some simply could not afford.

Noxon home talent staged a play, "An Old Maid's Convention" and raised $80.00 for the Red Cross funds. Failure to attend with out good reason fed suspicions. Maybe absentees weren't good Americans?6.

Further restrictions were placed on these ordinary citizens when the government 'licensed' the purchase of dynamite. Only citizens of the United States could obtain licenses; to prevent explosives from falling into the hands of,
"evilly disposed persons, and to put a stop to dynamite plots," the weekly newspaper proclaimed.7.
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Caption: Unidentified Noxon man on horseback. Note letter in shirt pocket, beard stubble, and epaulette sleeves. Courtesy Edna Evans Cummings collection.

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Caption: Harriet Raynor, William Evans and Walter Evans at Raynor homestead on Rock Creek, Noxon, Montana. circa 1917. Raynors raised cattle and chickens. They had mill cows and poured the milk into five-inch deep pans to allow cream to raise to the top, be skimmed off, and churned into butter which Harriet sold in Noxon. Courtesy Edna Evans Cummings collection.

Numerous settlers lived all up and down the valleys who hadn't yet taken out naturalization papers. Some were from Canada. Others were European immigrants. This was but the first blow to befall them.

Here, in the remote valleys, everyone had enough to eat, yet. Social opportunities were numerous as societies gathered to sew and knit for Red Cross.

While most of the communities in the county far exceeded or doubled their subscribed quota, Noxon exceeded the Red Cross subscription of $66.00 by contributing $71.40. The Red Cross intended to raise $1,000,000 from the nation. Sanders county raised nearly double the county quota by collecting $1,935.65.8.

While many only worried about the rate at which men might be called, leaving ranches which could not be managed by women and children alone, for others, support of a war they did not favor was unconscionable.

FOOTNOTES
  1. Carmen Moore, tape recorded oral history, 1987.
  2. Sanders County Independent Ledger, August 16, 1917
  3. Sanders County Independent Ledger, June 21, 1917.
  4. Audrey Moore Brixen, letter February 6, 1990
  5. Sanders County Independent Ledger, June 17, 1917.
  6. Sanders County Independent Ledger, Nov. 29, 1917.
  7. Sanders County Independent Ledger, Nov. 29, 1917.
  8. Sanders County Independent Ledger, June 21, 1917.